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by Admin » Mon Aug 27, 2018 1:19 pm

30. Vinith V Kumar, M.G. Veena, G.S. Suresh, Seetharamaiah Nandini. Design of a Potentiostat and Glucometer for Rhoeo Discolor Leaf Extract Based Glucose Biosensor // Journal of Innovation in Electronics and Communication Engineering. -2015. Vol. 5(1). P. 63-70.

Abstract: In this paper, a microcontroller based system for the measurement of glucose is designed and implemented for Rhoeo discolor leaf extract based glucose biosensors. An electronic circuit known as potentiostat is built for the three electrode electrochemical cell which incorporates the leaf extract based biosensor. The signals from the biosensor is further processed using suitable circuitry and is interfaced to the microcontroller. Liquid crystal display is used to display the concentrations of glucose solutions. The stored glucose values are transferred into a personal computer through serial bus and also to a smartphone using a Bluetooth module. Software is developed in C language using mikroC Pro for PIC and schematics of potentiostat and glucometer are designed using Proteus Schematic capture tool. To achieve high accuracy, the proposed meter uses transcendental concentration equation over the linear equation used in existing commercial meters. The instrument is tested for various concentrations of glucose solutions.

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References
[1] A.J. Bard, L.R. Faulkner, "Electrochemical Methods: "Fundamentals and applications", John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

[2] Heller A., Feldman B. Electrochemical glucose sensors and their applications in diabetes
management.Chem. Rev. 2008;108:2482-2505. [3] Y. Liu, J. Lie and H. Ju, Talanta, 2008, 74, 965-
970.

[4] Seetharamaiah Nandini, Seetharamaiah Nalini, Sangaraju Shanmugam, Pathappa Niranjana, Jose
Savio Melo and Gurukar Shivappa Suresh, Rhoeo discolor leaf extract as a novel immobilizing matrix
for the fabrication of an electrochemical glucose and hydrogen peroxide biosensor, Anal. Methods, 2014,
6, 863-877, Royal society of chemistry, 2014.

[5] Jaime Punter Villagrasa, Jordi Colomer-Farrarons and Pere Ll. Miribel, Bioelectronics for
Amperometric Biosensors.

[6] M. Gupta and H. Aggarwal, "Design and Implementation of PSoC based Cap Sense for
Medical Touch system saliva Vs Blood Glucose Meter," International Journal of Advanced Research
in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 5, May 2013.

[7] N. A. Latha, B. R. Murthy, U. Sunitha , " Design And Development Of A Microcontroller Based
System For The Measurement Of Blood Glucose," International Journal of Engineering Research and
Applications (IJERA), Vol. 2, No. 5, pp.1440-1444, Sep. 2012.

[8] R. Suarez and C. Casillas, "Implementing a Glucometer and Blood Pressure Monitor Medical
Devices," Freescale Semiconductor Application Note, 2009.

[9] J. Jirka, M. Prauzek, M. Stankus, "Glucose Measuring Device with Advanced Data Processing
and Improved Strip Detection," ElektronikaIrElektrotechnika, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2013.

[10] C.T.S. Ching and P. Connolly, "Reverse Iontophoresis: A New Approach to Measure Blood
Glucose Level," Asian Journal of Health and Information Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 393-410,
2007.

[11] B.H. Ginsberg, "Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement," J
Diabetes Sci Technol., 3(4): 903-913, July 2009.

[12] ShumitSaha, NayanSarker, AvijitHira, Design & Implementation of a Low Cost Blood Glucose Meter
with High Accuracy, International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information &
Communication Technology (ICEEICT) 2014.

[13] E. Balaguruswami, "Numerical Methods", Tata McGraw Hill PublishingCompany, 2008.

[14] "Microcontrollers in blood glucose meters", Texas instruments Application Note, 2013
[15] M. Gupta and H. Aggarwal, "Design and Implementation of PSoC based Cap Sense for
Medical Touch system saliva Vs Blood Glucose Meter," International Journal of Advanced Research
in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 5, May 2013.

[16] R. A. Gayakward, "Op amps & linear integrated circuits", Pearson Education, 2007.
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by Admin » Thu Aug 30, 2018 1:43 pm

31. Ashwini V. G. MICRO-CONTROLLER BASED POTENTIOSTAT / A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science, Computer Engineering Boise State University. - September, 2004.

Abstract: Remote detection and monitoring of environmental contaminants is a fast growing field as it alleviates human interaction and decreases cost of operation. An embedded potentiostat to detect the concentration of a chemical was built as part of an effort to remotely detect and monitor environmental contaminants. A potentiostat is an electronic instrument that allows the application of voltage waveforms of various shapes on a 3 or 4 electrode set-up and determine the current through the cell. In this work, the potentiostat was used to perform cyclic voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry is a technique in which a triangular voltage is imposed on the electrochemical cell and the current through the cell is analyzed. The current versus voltage curve of an electro-active chemical species that undergoes red-ox behavior displays two prominent peaks, one in each direction of the sweep voltage. The current peaks are indicative of the concentration of the chemical and also provide other useful information. An embedded potentiostat system that extracts the concentration of the chemical from the peak measurements was built. The entire system was integrated on a printed circuit board of dimensions 3 cm X 13cm. The correlation factor between concentration of chemical and current peak using the embedded sensor system was found to be greater than 0.99.

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Figure 2: i-E curve of cyclic voltammetry measurements with varying scan rates

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Figure 3: Schematic of interface between micro-controller and electrochemical cell

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Figure 11: Alternate circuit


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APPENDIX B: PCB LAYOUT


References
Abhishek Bandyopadhyay, Grant Mulliken, Gert Cauwenberghs and Nitish Thakor. "Vlsi Potentiostat Array for Distributed Electrochemical Neural Recording" Circuits and Systems, 2002. ISCAS 2002. IEEE International Symposium on, pg. no. II-740 - II-43.

Allen J. Bard, Larry R. Faulkner. Electrochemical Methods - Fundamentals and Applications, 1980.

Richard D. Beach, Falko v. Kuster, and Frances Moussy, December 1999. "Subminiature Implantable Potentiostat and Modified Commercial Telemetry Device for Remote Glucose Monitoring." IEEE Transactions of Instrumentation and Measurement , 1999, pg.no. 937-942 Vol. 48, No.6.

John O.M. Bockris, Amulya K.N. Reddy, Maria Gamboa-Aldeco. Modern Electrochemistry. second edition, 1923.
EG&G93 EG&G Instruments Corporation, “MODEL273A Potentiostat/Galvenostat User’s Guide”, 1993.

“Biosensors & Bioelectronics Home page of Eugenii Katz”. Available at:
http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/faq.htm

Ralf G. Kakerow, Holger Kappert, Egbert Spiegel and Yiannos Manoli. "Low-Power Single-Chip Cmos Potentiostat." The 8th International Conference on Solid-Sate Sensors and Actuators, and Eurosensors IX. Stockholm, Sweden, 1995. pg. no. 142-45. Vol. 1.

“MAX5354 10-Bit Voltage-Output DACs in 8-Pin μMAX”, 1997. Available at:
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/D ... 39564b.pdf

Microchip Technology, Inc. "Microchip Mplab C18 C Compiler Libraries". 2002. Available at:
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/D ... 51297c.pdf

Microchip Technology, Inc. “Microchip MPLAB ICD-2 In-Circuit Debugger Quick Start Guide”, 2003. Available at
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/D ... 51331a.pdf

National Semiconductor, "LM741 Operational Amplifier", 2000. Available at:
http://www.national.com/ds/LM/LM148.pdf

National Semiconductor, “LM148/LM248/LM348 Quad 741 Op Amps", 2003. Available at:
http://www.national.com/ds/LM/LM148.pdf

John B. Peatman. Embedded Design with the PIC18F452 Micro-controller. Prentice Hall, 2003.

Wesley A. Prouty, “Embedded system design for multi-purpose sensors to detect and analyze environmental contaminants”, 2003.

Richard J. Reay, Samuel P. Kounaves, Gregory T.A.Kovacs. "An Integrated Cmos Potentiostat for Miniaturized Electroanalytic Instrumentation." IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference.: IEEE, 1994, pg.no.162-63.

Richard J. Reay, Samuel P. Kounaves, Gregory T.A.Kovacs. "Microfabricated Electrochemical Analysis System for Heavy Metal Detection." The 8th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, and Eurosensors IX. Stockholm, Sweden, 1995, pg. no.932-35, vol. 2.
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by Admin » Mon Sep 10, 2018 2:44 pm

32. Hernández P.R., Galán C.A., Morales A. & Alegret S. Measuring system for amperometric chemical sensors using the three-electrode technique for field application // Journal of Applied Research and Technology. - 2003. Vol. 1 No. 2. P. 107-113.

Abstract:
A portable and low cost measuring system for amperometric chemical sensors using the three-electrode technique was developed. This technique allows chemical sensors to work with currents higher than ten microamperes. The system was based on a potentiostat operation, completed with an I-V converter and signal conditioning circuits. The instrument was evaluated comparing calibration curves of hydrogen peroxide, proving several amperometric chemical sensors and biosensors, to those obtained from a very expensive commercial equipment. Good linearity and sensibility as well as low noise measurements were obtained. Moreover, because the reduced size and low cost, the instrument allows to be used directly in field applications.

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References
[1] Janata J., Principles of chemical sensors, Plenum Press, New York, 1989.
[2] Bostwick K.G., Bougher J., Kissinger P.T., Battery-powered potentiostats for LCEC and amperometric biosensors, Current separations, 13:1 (1994) 28-29.
[3] Bard A.J. and Faulkner L.R., Electrochemical methods, Fundamentals and applications, John Wiley & Sons, 1980, USA.
[4] Galán Vidal C. A., Desarrollo de sensores químicos por tecnología thick-film, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departamento de Química, Bellaterra España, 1995.
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by Admin » Wed Sep 12, 2018 2:18 pm

33. Enache A., Rusu I., Ghici F., Pristavu G., Brezeanu G., and Enache F. High Accuracy Amperometric Sense and Control Circuit for Three-electrode Biosensors // Romanian journal of information science and technology. - 2016. Vol. 19. No. 3. P. 295–308.

Abstract: A system used for measuring the concentration of chemical compounds in fluids/solutions is designed, implemented and tested. The system comprises a Sense and Control Circuit formed with a potentiostat for three-electrode electrochemical cell (biosensor) biasing and a transimpedance amplifier for cell current processing. The stability of the potentiostat and the linearity of the transimpedance amplifier are theoretically and experimentally investigated. The high accuracy of the system is demonstrated by simulations and measurements. A comparison with a commercially available system is carried out.

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References
[1] ] De VENUTO D., TORRE M. D., BOERO C., CARRARA S., De MICHELI G., A
Novel Multi-Working Electrode Potentiostat for Electrochemical Detection of Metabolites,
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15721577.
[2] GHOREISHIZADEH S. S., TAURINO I., CARRARA S., De MICHELI G., A Current-
Mode Potentiostat for Multi-Target Detection Tested with Different Lactate Biosensors, in:
Proceedings of the IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference, Hsinchu, Taiwan,
28-30 Nov. 2012, pp. 128131.
[3] KUBERSKY P., KROUPA M., HAMACEK A., STULIK J., ZWIEFELHOFER V., Potentiostat
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International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Bad Aussee, Austria, 9-13 May
2012, pp. 388393.
[4] MOHANTY S. P., KOUGIANOS E., Biosensors: A tutorial review, in: IEEE Potentials
Magazine, Volume 25, Issue 2, March-April 2006, pp. 3540.
[5] ORAZEM M. E., TRIBOLLET B., Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, in: The
Electrochemical Society Series, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2008.
[6] NICHOLSON R. S., Theory and Application of Cyclic Voltammetry for Measurement
of Reaction Electrode Kinetics, in: Analytical Chemistry 37, No. 11, October 1965, pp.
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[7] GRIMES C. A.,. DICKEY E. C,. PISHKO M. V., Encyclopedia of Sensors, American
Scientific Publishers, 2006.
[8] ZIUO L., ISLAM S. K., MAHBUB I., QUAIYUM F., A Low-Power 1-V Potentiostat
for Glucose Sensors, in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs,
Volume 62, Issue 2, February 2015, pp. 204208.
[9] GHANABRI S., HABIBI M., Low power potentiostat using switching technique for three
electrode amperometric sensors, in: Proceedings of the 23rd Iranian Conference on Electrical
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[10] ENACHE A., RUSU I., DRA˘ GHICI F., BREZEANU Gh., PRISTAVU Gh., ENACHE F.,
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[11] AHMADI M. M., GRAHAM A. J., Current-Mirror Based Potentiostats for Three-
Electrode Amperometric Electrochemical Sensors, in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and
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[12] VILLAGRASA J. P., COLOMER-FARRARONS J.,. MIRIBEL P. Ll, Chapter 10: Bioelectronics
for Amperometric Biosensors, pp. 241-271, in: State of the Art in Biosensors
General Aspects, InTech, 2013.
[13] Datasheet of LTC1062, accessed at http://cds.linear.com/docs/en/datasheet/1062fd.pdf.
[14] GRAY P. R., HURST P. J., LEWIS S. H., MEYER R. G., Analysis and Design of Analog
Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.
[15] ENACHE A., Circuit de prelucrare i msurare a semnalului unei celule electrochimice,
Bachelor Thesis, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 2016.
[16] Scientific and Technical Research Report for PNCDI II 146/2014 Research Project, First
Phase, 2014.
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by Admin » Wed Sep 12, 2018 2:45 pm

34. Crhistian C Segura, Johann F Osma. Miniaturization of cyclic voltammetry electronic systems for remote biosensing // International Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics. - 2017. Vol. 3 Issue 3. P. 297-299.

Abstract:
Although there are commercial tools available for electrochemistry in biosensing, these are normally expensive or their size is not suitable for portable applications. This article describes the design and fabrication of a low-cost 20 grams USB or Bluetooth controlled potentiostat that can apply potentials in the range of ±1.65 V, can measure from microamperes to maximum 10 mA, and has the ability to send and receive data via USB or remotely via Bluetooth using a low power voltage supply (USB or LiPo battery) allowing its use in portable applications such as remote biosensors.

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References
1. Nordin NA, Jamil AJ, Mat Som ASC, et al. Potentiostat readout circuit
design for a 3-electrode electrochemical biosensing measurement
system. Control Syst Grad Res Colloquium, ICSGRC 2016 - Proceeding,
Malaysia: IEEE; 2017. p. 159–163.
2. Koutilellis GD, Economou A, Efstathiou CE. A potentiostat featuring
an integrator transimpedance amplifier for the measurement of very low
currents - Proof-of-principle application in microfluidic separations and
voltammetry. Rev Sci Instrum. 2016;87(3):034101.
3. Liu WC, Hou JW, Syu YS, et al. A time-based potentiostat for wide
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Proceedings/TENCON; 2016.
4. Ettenauer J, Zuser K, Kellner K, et al. Development of an automated
biosensor for rapid detection and quantification of E. coli in water.
Procedia Eng. 2015;120:376–379.
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electrochemical sensing of urinary 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid with
molecularly imprinted poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol). Biosens
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by Admin » Sat Dec 22, 2018 8:53 am

35. Schwarz J., Trommer K., Mertig M. Novel Screen-Printed All-Solid-State Copper(II)-Selective Electrode for Mobile Environmental Analysis // American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. -2016. № 7. P. 525-532.

Abstract: Based on poly(vinyl chloride) membranes, a novel miniaturized screen-printed all-solid-state copper(II)-selective electrode has been developed for applications in environmental monitoring. Performance and applicability of the ion-selective electrode (ISE) have been proved by potentiometric investigations. Conducting polymers were used as intermediate layers and as solid contacts between the ion-selective membrane and the graphite transducer. The ion-complexing reagent 2-mercapto-benzoxazole was incorporated into poly(vinyl chloride) membranes. In the concentration range 10−6 - 10−2 mol/L, the ISE exhibited a linear Nernstian potential response to copper(II) with an average slope value of 28 mV/decade. The detection limit was 3 × 10−7 mol/L. The electrode exhibits a short response time (<10 s) and can be used in the range of pH = 3 - 7. Selectivity coefficents against certain interfering ions are investigated. The life time of the electrode under laboratory conditions was approximately 12-month. The electrode was applied in the investigation of different aqueous environmental samples and the electrode characteristics were described. The copper(II) ASS electrode has also successfully been used in potentiometric, complexometric titrations with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

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28. Tong Shen, Tong Zhou, Ying Wan and Yan Su. High-Precision and Low-Cost Wireless 16-Channel Measurement System for Malachite Green Detection// Micromachines. - 2018, 9, 646.

Abstract: Focusing on the issue of the malachite green traditional test methods such as large volume, high cost and high complex, this paper proposed a novel multi-channel electrochemical malachite green detection system. Pecific recognition properties of malachite green DNA adapter is employed to realize accurate sensing of concentration of malachite green, which can achieve precise detection of malachite green concentration with low noise and high precision. The maximum measurement capability of multi-channel acquisition system is 16 samples in a batch. According to the experimental results, malachite green could be detected quantitatively in the range from 10-3 g/mL to 10 g/mL, which performs well in the test of malachite green residues in aquatic product transportation.

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