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НИЛ АСЭМ Научно - исследовательская лаборатория автоматизированных систем экологического мониторинга

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by Admin » Fri Sep 14, 2018 6:55 pm

11. Avishek Adhikary, Ujjwal Kumar and Karabi Biswas. A Phase Angle Measurement Based Conductivity Sensor for Low Conductance Solution // Symposium on Advances in Control & Instrumentation. - 2014. P.180-187.

Abstract:
This work presents a simple, small size, low cost, stable conductivity sensor which is able to measure a solution conductivity of the range 10 μS/cm to 1 mS/cm with ±5% full scale accuracy. The sensor is simple to fabricate, light weight and small in size (3 cm 0.6 cm 0.16 cm). It is fabricated by coating a thin film of polymer, DQN-70, on a double-sided copper-clad epoxy strip. Here, the sensing principle adopts a phase measurement technique, and thus, avoids bulky and complex 4- electrode measurement set up. The sensor requires very small amount of solution (0.5 ml) making it suitable for the cases where sample amount is not abundant (e.g. in diagnostic and pharmaceutical applications). The sensor is tested over a year, in different ionic solution and is found to retain its sensor characteristics. A proper signal conditioning scheme has also been proposed to develop a multichannel conductivity meter with the developed conductivity sensor.

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References
[1] W. Gong, M. Mowlem, M. Kraft, and H. Morgan, "Oceanographic Sensor for in-situ temperature and conductivity monitoring," In Proc. OCEANS 2008-MTS/IEEE Kobe Techno-Ocean, pp: 1-6, 8-11 Apr.2008
[2] S. K. Hooker and I. L. Boyda, "Salinity sensors on seals:use of marinepredators to carry CTD data loggers", Deep-Sea Research I, Vol.50, pp:927-939, 2003.
[3] M. Fedak, “Marine animals as platforms for oceanographic sampling: a “win/win” situation for biology and operational oceanography”, Mem. Natl. Inst. Polar Res., Spec. Issue, Vol. 58, pp: 133–147, 2004.
[4] X. Huang, R. W. Pascal, K. Chamberlain, C. J. Banks, M. Mowlem, and H. Morgan, “A Miniature, High Precision Conductivity and Temperature Sensor System for Ocean Monitoring”, J. IEEE Sensor, VOL. 11 (12), pp: 3246 – 52, Dec. 2011.
[5] J. Yi, W. Li, L. Wang, and Z. Wen, “The simulation of frequency-capacitance characteristics of fresh water conductivity sensor”, In Proc. 4th IEEE Int. Conf. on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, Shenzhen- China, pp: 29-32, Jan 5-8, 2009.
[6] “Theory and application of conductivity”, Application Data Sheet, ADS 43-018/rev.D, Jan. 2010.
[7] C. Woody, B. Smith, J. Miller, T. Royer, L. P. Atkinson, and R. S. Moody,“Measurements of salinity in the coastal ocean: A review of requirementsand technologies”, J. Marine Technol. Soc., Vol. 32, pp: 26-33, 2000. [8] T. Horiuchi, F. Wolk, and P. Macoun, “Long-term stability of a new conductivity-temperature sensor tested on the VENUS cabled observatory”, In Proc. OCEANS 2010 IEEE - Sydney, pp.1-4, 24-27 May, 2010.
[9] Lung-Tai Chen, Chia-Yen Lee, Wood-Hi Cheng, "MEMS-based humiditysensor with integrated temperature compensation mechanism",Sensorsand Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 147 (2), pp: 522-528, Oct. 2008.
[10] S. Aravamudhan, S. Bhat, B. Bethala, and S. Bhansali, “MEMS based conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor forharsh oceanic environment”, In Proc. OCEANS 2005-MTS/IEEE, 18-23 Sep, 2005.
[11] A. S. Zoolfaka, S. B. Hashi, M. Zolkapli, and M. F. Idros, “Design, fabrication and characterization ofconductivity sensor using printed circuit board” In Proc. 6th Int. Colloquium on Signal Processing & Its Applications (CSPA), pp: 129-134, 2010.
[12] K. Biswas, S. Sen, and P. K. Dutta, “Modeling of a capacitive probe in a polarizable medium,” Sensor Actuat. A-Phys., vol. 120(1), pp: 115–122, 2005.
[13] P. M. Ramos, J. M. D. Pereira, H. M. G. Ramos, and A. L. Ribeiro, “A Four-Terminal Water-Quality-Monitoring Conductivity Sensor”, IEEE Trans.Instrument.Measur., Vol. 57(3), Mar, 2008.
[14] User Guide: CDE-45P Four-Electrode Conductivity Sensor, Omega Engineering Inc., USA.
[15] Instruction Manual: Conductivity Meter 304, SYSTRONICS, India.
[16] E. A. Mistri, A. K. Mohanty, S. Banerjee, H. Komber, B. Voit, "Naphthalene dianhydride based semifluorinated sulfonated copoly(ether imide)s: Synthesis, characterization and proton exchange properties." J. Membrane Science, Vol. 441, pp: 168-177, 2013.
[17] S. Das, M. Sivaramakrishna, K. Biswas, and B. Goswami, “Performance study of a constant phase angle based impedance sensor to detect milk adulteration,” Sensor Actuat.A-Phys., vol. 167, pp. 273–278, 2011.
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by Admin » Sat Sep 15, 2018 9:57 pm

12. Bardos A., Zare R. N., Markides K. Inductive behavior of electrolytes in AC conductance measurements // Chemical Physics Letters. – 2005. Vol. 402. P. 274–278.

Abstract: The alternating current conductance of various electrolytes contained inside a capillary is measured as a function of frequency from 1 kHz to 10 MHz. The response is found to be haracteristic of the concentration and composition of the electrolyte. A simple model is able to reproduce well the dispersive shape of the frequency-dependent conductance.  2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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References
[1] P. Delahay, C.N. Reilley, New Instrumental Methods in Electrochemistry,
Interscience Publishers, New York, 1954.
[2] A. Chandra, B. Bagchi, J. Chem. Phys. 112 (4) (2000) 1876.
[3] J.E. Anderson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 172–174 (1994) 1190.
[4] A. Samanta, S.K. Ghosh, J. Mol. Liq. 77 (1998) 165.
[5] A.J. Zemann, E. Schnell, D. Volgger, G.K. Bonn, Anal. Chem. 70
(1998) 563.
[6] J.A. Fracassi da Silva, C.L. do Lago, Anal. Chem. 70 (1998) 4339.
[7] P.W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, fifth edn., Oxford University
Press, New York, 1994 (Chapter 24.5).
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by Admin » Tue Sep 18, 2018 10:07 pm

13. Rajkumar S. Patil, Vinay A. Juvekar* and Umesh Nalage. An Electrochemical Technique for Measurements of Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Electrolytes / Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076, India. P.1-24.

Abstract: The technique presented here for the measurement of electrical conductivity is based on the principle that the current converges on a small disk electrode. Most of the ohmic resistance therefore lies within a narrow region surrounding the disk. If the reference electrode is kept outside this zone, the potential difference between the working and the reference electrode includes practically all ohmic potential drops occurring in the solution. Moreover, this ohmic drop can be related to the conductivity of the solution by an analytical expression derived by Newman. At sufficiently high overpotentials, the rate of charge transfer is limited by the conduction of current from the bulk solution to the electrode. In this regime, the current varies linearly with the electrode potential and the conductivity of the solution can be estimated from the slope of the voltammogram using Newman’s expression. The electrochemical reaction used for measuring conductivity of solutions of salts is the cathodic reduction of water and that used for aqueous acids is the cathodic reduction of hydrogen ions. The technique has been used to measure conductivity of several common aqueous electrolytes. A good agreement is found between the present technique and the conventional technique based on AC impedance analysis.

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References
1. Newman, J. Resistance for Flow of Current to a Disk. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1966, 113, 501.
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Behaviour; Pergamon Press: Oxford: 1989.
3. Pintro, J.; Inoue, T. T. A Comparative Study of Determined and Calculated Values of Ionic
Strength of Different Nutrient Solutions Consisting of an Ionic Pair. J. Plant Nutr. 1999,
22, 1223-1231.
4. Polemio, M.; Bufo, S.; Paoletti, S. Evalution of Ionic Strength and Salinity of
Groundwaters: Effect of the Ionic Composition. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1980, 44,
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5. Ponnamperuma, F. N.; Tianco, E. M.; Loy, T. A. Ionic Strength of the Solutions of Flooded
Soils and Other Natural Aqueous Solutions from Specific Conductance. Soil Sci. 1966,
102, 408-413.
6. Pollak, M. J. The Use of Electrical Conductivity Measurements for Chlorinity
Determination. J. Mar. Res. 1954, 13, 228-231.
7. McNeil, V. H.; Cox, M. E. Relationship between Conductivity and Analysed Compositions
in a Large Set of Natural Surface-Water Samples, Queensland Australia. Environ. Geol.
2000, 39, 1325-1333.
8. Gustafson, H.; Behrman, S. Determination of Total Dissolved Solids in Water by Electrical
Conductivity. Ind. Eng. Chem. , Anal. Ed 1939, 11, 355-357.
9. Day, B. A.; Nightingale, H. I. Relationship between Ground-Water Silica, Total Dissolved
Solids, and Specific Electrical Conductivity. Ground Water 1984, 22, 80-85.
10. Singh, T.; Kalra, Y. P. Specific Conductance Methods for and In Situ Estimation of Total
Dissolved Solids. J. Am. Water Works Assoc 1975, 67, 99-100.
11. Schuppan, J. Possibilities for the Use of Conductivity Measurement in Process Control.
Wiss Z. Technol. Leuna-Merseburg Hochschule. " Carl Schorlemmer" 1984, 26, 38-49.
12. Gunning, H. E.; Gordon, A. R. The Conductance and Ionic Mobilities for Aqueous
Solutions of Potassium and Sodium Chloride at Temperatures from 15° to 45°C. J. Chem.
Phys. 1942, 10, 126-131.
13. Shedlovsky, T. The Electrolytic Conductivity of Some Uni-Univalent Electrolytes in Water
at 250C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1932, 54, 1411-1428.
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Sodium Chloride and Potassium Chloride Solution at 250C. J. Phys. Chem. 1956, 60, 985-
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15. Owen, B. B.; Frederick, H. S. The Conductance of Hydrochloric Acid in Aqueous
Solutions from 5 to 650C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1941, 63, 2811-2817.
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by Admin » Thu Sep 20, 2018 7:18 pm

14. Masaki Hayashi. Temperature-electrical conductivity relation of water for environmental monitoring and geophysical data inversion // Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. – 2004. Vol. 96. 119–128.

Abstract: Electrical conductivity (EC) is widely used for monitoring the mixing of fresh water and saline water, separating stream hydrographs, and geophysical mapping of contaminated groundwater. The measured EC values at various temperatures need to be reported as corresponding to a standard temperature because EC is dependent on temperature. An arbitrary constant is commonly used for temperature compensation assuming that EC-temperature relation is linear (for example 2% increase of EC per 1 ◦C). This paper examines the EC-temperature relation of natural waters having vastly different compositions and salinities. EC-temperature relation was slightly nonlinear in a temperature range 0–30 ◦C, but the linear equation approximated the relation reasonably well. The temperature compensation factor corresponding to 25 ◦C ranged between 0.0175 and 0.0198. When the mean value 0.0187 was used, the error of estimating EC at 25 ◦C from EC at 10 ◦C was less than about 2% for all samples tested. Temperature compensation factors vary substantially depending on the choice of standard temperature. Therefore, a care must be taken when standard temperatures different from 25 ◦C are used.

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References
Chang, C., Sommerfeldt, T. G., Carefoot, J.M. and Schaalje, G. B.: 1983, ‘Relationships of electrical conductivity with total dissolved salts and cation concentration of sulfate-dominant soil extracts’,Can. J. Soil Sci. 63, 79−86.

Clesceri, L. S., Greenberg, A. E. and Eaton, A. D.: 1998, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. Dingman, S. L.: 2002, Physical Hydrology, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Frohlich, R. K. and Urish, D. W.: 2002, ‘The use of geoelectrics and test wells for the assessment of groundwater quality of a coastal industrial site’, J. Appl. Geophys. 50, 261−278.

Hem, J. D.: 1985, Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water, 3rd ed., U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254.

Hiscock, K. M., Dennis, P. F., Saynor, P. R. and Thomas, M. O.: 1996, ‘Hydrochemical and stable
isotope evidence for the extent and nature of the effective Chalk aquifer of north Norfolk, U.K.’,
J. Hydrology 180, 79−107.

Jacobson, G. and Jankowski, J.: 1989, ‘Groundwater-discharge processes at a central Australian
playa’, J. Hydrology 105, 275−295.

Jellison, R., MacIntyre, S. and Millero, F. J.: 1999. ‘Density and conductivity properties of Na-CO3-
Cl-SO4 brine from Mono Lake, California, U.S.A.’, Internat. J. Salt Lake Res. 8, 41−53.

Jones, B. F., Eugster, H. P. and Rettig, S. L.: 1977, ‘Hydrochemistry of the Lake Magadi basin,
Kenya’, Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 41, 53−72.

Keller, G. V. and Frischknecht, F. C.: 1966, Electrical Methods in Geophysical Prospecting,
Pargamon Press, Oxford.

Kobayashi, D.: 1986, ‘Separation of a snowmelt hydrograph by stream conductance’, J. Hydrology
84, 157−165.

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Lide, D. R.: 2000, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 81st ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton,
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Matthess, G.: 1982, The Properties of Groundwater, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Millero, F. J.: 2001, The Physical Chemistry of Natural Waters, Wiley-Interscience, New York.

Plummer, L. N., Parkhurst, D. L., Flemming, G. W. and Dunkle, S. A.: 1988, ‘A Computer Program
Incorporating Pitzer’s Equations for Calculation of Geochemical Reactions in Brines’, U.S.
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Robinson, R. A. and Stokes, R. H.: 1965, Electrolyte Solutions, Butterworths, London, U.K.
Sorensen, J. A. and Glass, G. E.: 1987, ‘Ion and temperature dependence of electrical conductance
for natural waters’, Analyt. Chem. 59, 1594−1597.

Yechieli, Y., Kafri, U., Goldman, M. and Voss, C. I.: 2001, ‘Factors controlling the configuration of
the fresh-saline water interface in the Dead Sea coastal aquifers: Synthesis of TDEMsurveys and
numerical groundwater modeling’, Hydrogeol. J. 9, 367−377.

Zimmerman, E. P., Bentley, L. R. and Hayashi, M.: 2001, ‘The Verification of Electrical Resistivity
Imaging in the Study of Saline and Fresh Groundwater Interaction at Lydden Lake, SK’, in
Proceedings of the Second Joint Conference of the International Association of Hydrogeologists
Canadian National Chapter and the Canadian Geotechnical Society, Calgary, Alberta, Canada,
16−19 September, pp. 952−958.
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by Admin » Sun Sep 23, 2018 4:17 am

15. Eduardo Garcia-Breijo , Jose M. Barat , Olga L Torres , Raul Grau , Luis Gil , Javier Ibanez , Miguel Alcaniz , Rafael Masot , Ruben Fraile. Development of a puncture electronic device for electrical conductivity measurements throughout meat salting // Sensors and Actuators. – 2008. V. 148. Issue 1. P. 63-67.

Abstract: Conductivity measurements of food systems are of high interest because they are related with food characteristics such as free water and salt content. Nevertheless, as far as now no devices have been developed for punctual conductivity measurements inside solid foods. The aim of this work was to develop a conductimeter which allows obtaining punctual measurements in different locations of solid foods. The sensor consists of a coaxial needle while an electrical sign controlled by microcontroller is applied. The preliminary results indicate that the obtained response is proportional to the conductivity and the salt content in the zone of measurement of the food, being possible its use for salted food analysis and control.

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References
T. Aymerich, PA. Picouet.J.M. Monfort, Decontamination technologies for meat
products, Meat Sci. 78 (1-2) (2008) 114-129.

M. Flores, J.M. Barat, M. Aristoy, M.M. Peris, R. Grau, F. Toldra, Accelerated
processing of dry-cured ham. Part 2. Influence of brine thawing/salting
operation on proteolysis and sensory acceptability, Meat Sci. 72 (4) (2006)
766-772.

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S. Mizhari, J. Kopelman, J. Perlman, Blanching by electroconductive heating, J.
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H.C. Bertram, S.B. Engelsen, H. Busk, A.H. Karlsson, H.J. Andersen, Water properties
during cooking of pork studied by low-field NMR relaxation: effects of
curing and the RN-gene, Meat Sci. 66 (2004) 437-446.

C. Vestergaard, J. Risum, J. Adler-Nissen, Quantification of salt concentrations
in cured pork by computed tomography, Meat Sci. 68 (2004)
107-113.

A. Fortin, A.K.W. Tong, W.M. Robertson, S.M. Zawadski, S.J. Landry, D.J. Robinson,
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L Gallart-Jornet, J.M. Barat, T. Rustad, U. Erikson, I. Escriche, P. Fito, A comparative
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J.M. Barat, S. Rodriguez-Barona, A. Andres, P. Fit
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by Admin » Wed Sep 26, 2018 9:30 pm

16.
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17. Ivan A., Stihi V., Ivan M., Stihi C., Rakotondrabe M., Jelea A. Battery powered cost effective tds logger intended for water testing // Rom. Journ. Phys. – 2011. Vol. 56. Nos. 3-4. P. 540-549.

Abstract: The paper presents a cost-effective device designed for measuring and monitoring the TDS (total dissolved solids) level of drinkable, surface (lakes, rivers) and/or industrial waters. Providing a first reading of potential water pollutions, the device is dedicated to the sectors of environment and consumer protection. The device was implemented and a series of continuous measurements is depicted, discovering some abnormalities in the quality of Targoviste city water utility.

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References
1. Craun GF, McGabe LJ., Problems associated with metals in drinking water, Journal of the
American Water Works Association, (1975).

2. ****, CO150 Conductivity Meter Model 50150 Instruction Manual, Hach Company, (1998).

3. Singh T, Kalra YP., Specific conductance method for in situ estimation of total dissolved solids,
Journal of the American Water Works Association, (1975).

4. ****, PIC 18Fxxxx Microcontroller Data Sheet, Microchip Technology Comp. (2005).

5. Wagner, R.E. (ed), Guide to Environmental Analytical Methods, 4th edition, Genium Publishing
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electrical conductivity, Geneva, (1985).

8. Oprean L., Chicea D., Gaspar E., Lengyel E., Results of Physical and Chemical Parameters
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9. Anton M.C., Baltazar Rojas M.M., Aluculesei A., Marguþa R, Dorohoi, D, Study Regarding the
Water Pollution in Romania and Spain, Rom. Journ. Phys., Vol. 53, Nos. 1–2, 157–163 (2008).

10. C. Stihi, I. V. Popescu, A. Bancuta, V. Stihi, Gh. Vlaicu, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and
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11. Gabriel Dima, Ion V. Popescu, Claudia Stihi, Calin Oros, Sergiu Dinu, Laur manea, Gheorghe
Vlaicu, Fe, Mn and Zn concentration determination from Ialomita river by atomic absorption
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12. Gonca Coskun H., Tanik A., Alganci U., Cigizoglu H.K., Determination of Environmental
Quality of a Drinking Water Reservoir by Remote Sensing, GIS and Regression Analysis,
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by Admin » Tue Oct 16, 2018 4:25 am

18. Iyasele, J.U, David J. Idiata, D.J. Investigation of the Relationship between Electrical Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids for Mono-Valent, Di-Valent and Tri-Valent Metal Compounds // International Journal of Engineering Research and Reviews. – 2015. Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: 40-48.

Abstract: This study investigated the relationship that exist between total dissolve solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) for mono-, di-andtri-valent metal compounds. Standard solution of soluble and ionizable representatives of these different valency metal compounds (NaCl, CaCl2, FeCl2.4H20) were prepared and there EC and TDS values were obtained at different concentrations with a suitableEC/TDS meter. Increase in EC and TDS values follows the trend, at 0.01M NaCl, EC is 1.4ms/cm, TDS is 0.8ppm. At 0.1MCaCl2,EC is 2.36ms/cm, TDS is 1.43ppm. At 0.1MFeCl2.4H20 EC is 2.36ms/cm, and TDS is1.57ppm. From the data obtained, mathematical model was established for the different valency metal compounds to state the relationship between EC and TDS. For each of the compounds an appropriate model to state the relationship are, for mono-valent metal compound NaCl, (EC = 0.052672+1.5025.TDS), di-valentmetal compound, CaCl2 (EC= 1.072 + 131.TDS) and tri-valent metal compound, FeCl2. 4H20 (EC = 0.0251879 + 1. 49308 TDS) such that with a solution of such metal compound the value of EC or TDS can be approximately calculated and ascertained from the other.

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References
[1] Atekwanaa, E.A, Atekwanaa, E.A, Roweb, R.S, Werkema D.D Jr. & Legalld, F.D. The relationship of total dissolved solids measurements to bulk electrical conductivity in an aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbon. Journal of Applied Geophysics.56, 281–294, 2004.
[2] Wood, W.W. Guidelines for collection and field analyses of groundwater samples forselected unstable constituents. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, Book 1, Chapter D2. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC. 1976.
[3] Lloyd, J.W. and Heathcote, J.A. (1985). Natural Inorganic Hydrochemistry in Relation to Groundwater, Clarendon Press, Oxford, England.
[4] Hem, J.D (1985). Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water, 3rded. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper, vol. 2254. Washington, DC.
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[14] Okuonghae, D.U. Mathematical modelling, Mathematics Department, University of Benin.(UNIBEN 2011).
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19. “Theory and Practice of Conductivity Applications”, A guide to Conductivity measurement, Mettler Toledo, 2013.

Abstract: Electrical conductivity has been measured in practice for more than 100 years and it is still an important and widely used analytical parameter today. The high reliability, sensitivity, fast response, and the relatively low cost of the equipment make conductivity a valuable, easytouse tool for quality control. Electrical conductivity is a non-specific sum parameter over all dissolved ionic species (salts, acids, bases, and some organic substances) in a solution. This means that this technique is unable to differentiate between diverse kinds of ions. The reading is proportional to the combined effect of all ions in the sample. Therefore, it is an important tool for monitoring and surveillance of a wide range of different types of water (pure water, drinking water, natural water, process water, etc.) and other solvents. It is also used to determine the concentrations of conductive chemicals. This guide provides all the important basics that are necessary for a good understanding of conductivity measurement. Furthermore, all the important factors that influence the measurement and possible sources of errors are discussed. This booklet is not limited to theoretical aspects. It also contains a substantial practical part with step-by-step tutorials and guidelines for reliable calibration and measurements, descriptions of specific applications, and a section with answers to frequently asked questions. The main goal of this conductivity guide is to disseminate knowledge and understanding of this analytical technique, which will lead to more accurate and reliable results.

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