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НИЛ АСЭМ Научно - исследовательская лаборатория автоматизированных систем экологического мониторинга

Кондуктометрия

Подборка научных статей

by Admin » Mon Mar 26, 2018 4:57 pm


В данном разделе будут выкладываться научные статьи, посвященные кондуктометрическому методу анализа, а также новым приборам и разработкам для кондуктомерии.


1. Prompak K., Sisuk N., Suphramit S., Kaewpoonsuk A., Maneechukate T., Dussadee N. Simple opamp-based circuit for measuring electro-conductivity of electrolytic solutions in hydroponics system // ICIC Express Letters. – 2014. Vol. 8. No. 4. P.1097-1102.

Abstract: The electro-conductivity measurement is proposed to identify electroconductivity in electrolyte solutions. The method uses technique the zero and span circuit for expansion range of electro-conductivity measurement in electrolytic solutions. The proposed system consists of the EC sensor made of the two carbon electrodes and the circuit of measurement system. As a result, the proposed system can be used to well measure electrical conductivity continuously. Using the zero and span circuit, the error value is low, in range between -0.075 to 0.075 mS/ cm,. and the average error is approximately equal to 3.3% when the calibration with standard solution.

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References
[1 ] A. Inoue, M. Deng, T. Harada, Y. Baba, N. Morioka, A. Mutou and N. Ueki, On-line identification of electro-conductivity in electrolytic solutions, Proc. of the 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, 2006.

[2] M. Futagawa, I-I. Takao, M. Ishida, K. Sawada, T. Iwasaki, H. Takao, l\!l. Ishida and K. Sawada,
Fabrication of a multi-modal sensor with PH, EC and temperature sensing areas for agriculture
application, Proc. of IEEE Sensors Conference, pp.2013-2016, 2009.

[3] J. S. Meraz, F. Fernandez and L. F. Magana, A method for the measurement of the resistance of
electrolytic solutions, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, pp.E135-E137, 2005.

[4] K. Fitzgibbon, L. Kirkland, N. Flann and N. Wilson, An electrical current flow technology for the
next generation of automated testing equipment, Proc. of IEEE Autotestcon Proceeding, pp.745-760 ,
2002.
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2. Bharati S.R., Parvathi C.S. Atmel Microcontroller Based Human Blood Conductivity Measurement System // IJEE. - 2013. Vol.5. No.2.

Abstract: In this research paper an attempt is made to design and development of microcontroller based portable, economic blood conductivity measurement system by using conductivity cell. This has high performance price ratio with multifunction. The conductivity of blood sample is measured by immersing the conductivity cell in a blood sample. The conductivity cell produces voltage corresponding to the sample conductivity. This voltage is suitably signal conditioned and is given to the instrumentation amplifier. Arduino microcontroller acquires analog voltage through 10-bit on chip A/D converter. The LCD module is interfaced to the microcontroller and acquired conductivity is displayed on it. This paper deals with the hardware and software features of microcontroller based conductivity measurement system. Especially graphic trend curve on LCD allows individuals to easily see how actual blood conductivity varies with respect to time. The results are tested against real time blood sample.

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References
[1] Blood Wikipedia
[2] Blood Coagulation Wikipedia
[3] The Journal of Biomedical Chemistry, Vol. 253, No. 17,
September 10th pp. 5946–5951, 1978.
[4] Johnhindinger, “What is the Conductivity of Blood?”,
eHow.com 2005.
[5] FREDRIC.G et.all, “The Electrical Conductivity of Blood”,
Blood Journal, 1950, Vol. 5, No. 11, pp. 1017-1035.
[6] Electrical Parameters of Human Blood, IEEE explore, August
6, 2002.
[7] T. M. WILSON, “The Conductivity of Blood in Coagulation”,
Hull Physiological Laboratory, University of Chicago, May
25, 1907.
[8] Blood Coagulation, wikipedia.com
[9] HELEN BERNEY and J. J. O’RIORDAN, “Impedance
Measurement Monitors Blood Coagulation” Analog Dialogue
42-08, August (2008).
[10] HENRY. H. HENSTELL, “Electrolytic resistance of the blood
clot: Resistance clotting time, onset of clotting retraction and
the clot resistance”, Institute of Medical Research, Cedars of
Lebanon Hospital, Los Angeles, California.
[11] SAMUEL GRAFF et.all, “Electrical resistance of whole
blood”, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and
Surgery, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia
University, July 18, 1947.
[12] AMIRAM.UR, “Changes in the electrical impedance of blood
during coagulation”, Department of Aeronautics, Imperial
college, London, January 12, 1970.
[13] H. P. SCHWAN, “Electrical properties of blood and its
constituents: Alternating current spectroscopy”, Blut 1983
pp 185 – 197
[14] ALFRED.W. RICHARDSON, JACK. G. BISHOP, “A new
accurate and reliable method to record blood coagulation time
using an AC bridge principle”, September 23, 2006, Vol. 46,
issue – 9, pp. 553–555.
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by Admin » Tue Mar 27, 2018 4:23 pm

3. Meráz J. S., Fernández F., Magañac L. F. A Method for the Measurement of the Resistance
of Electrolytic Solutions // Journal of The Electrochemical Society. – 2005. Vol.152. No.4. P.135-137.


Abstract: We present a method and the corresponding instrumentation to measure the electric resistance of electrolytic solutions in conductivity cells. In this method we use a cylindrical cell and follow the simplest electrical model for an electrochemical cell, which is the electrolyte resistance in series with double-layer capacitance. By adding an external inductance to the real cell it is possible to
use the phenomenon of electric resonance in order to cancel the effects of the double-layer capacitance in electrolyte-electrode interfaces, separating the solution resistance during the measurement process. This is a very precise method for obtaining an absolute measurement of the resistance of electrolytic solutions and their conductivity, without using standard chemical solutions. We show the excellent agreement of our resistance measurement and its associated conductivity made for KCl, 0.1 M, with the corresponding standard value.


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References
1. L. Anderson, L. A. Coury, Jr., and J. Leddy, Anal. Chim. Acta, 72, 4497 ~2000!.
2. V. M. Gorokhovskii, Anal. Chim. Acta, 58, 230 ~2003!.
3. J. Braunstein and G. D. Robbins, J. Chem. Educ., 48, 52 ~1971!.
4. D. T. Sawyer and J. L. Roberts, Experimental Electrochemistry for Chemists, Chap.
5, John Wiley & Sons, New York, ~1974!.
5. J. J. Brophy, Basic Electronics for Scientists, Chap. 1, 2, and 3, McGraw-Hill, New
York ~1966!.
6. J. Millman and C. C. Halkias, Integrated Electronics: Analog and Digital Circuits
and Systems, Chap. 15, 16, McGraw-Hill, New York ~1972!.
7. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 72nd ed., D. R. Lide, Editor, pp. 5-93, CRC
Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL ~1991!.
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by Admin » Mon Jul 02, 2018 11:20 am

4. Kaewpoonsuk A., Suphramit S., Rerkratn A. Low-Ripple Output Interface Circuit for Electrical Conductivity Measurement. // Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2016 Vol II, IMECS 2016, March 16 - 18, 2016, Hong Kong.

Abstract: In this paper, an interface circuit for measuring the electrical conductivity of electrolyte solution is described. It consists of a quadrature oscillator, a non-inverting amplifier, a voltage-to-current converter, a peak detector, a sample-and-hold circuit, and the designed control signal generator. The proposed technique is based on the use of peak-and-hold method to detect the amplitude of sinusoidal output signal instead of the traditional method that uses the rectifier circuit connected with low-pass filter. The proposed circuit provides the obtained output in the form of DC voltage with low ripple and fast response. Experimental results verifying the circuit performance are agreed with the theoretical values.

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References
[1] Eymar, E., Oki, L. R., and Lieth, J. H., ”Continuous measurements of
electrical conductivity in growing media using a modified suction
probe: Initial calibration and potential usefulness,” Plant and Soil,
230, 67-75.

[2] Haval Y. Yacoob Aldosky, and Suzan M. H. Shamdeen2, “A new
system for measuring electrical conductivity of water as a function of
admittance,” J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 86-92.

[3] Futagawa, M., Iwasaki, T., Murata, H., Ishida, M., and Sawada, K.,
“A Miniature Integrated Multimodal Sensor for Measuring pH, EC
and Temperature for Precision Agriculture,” Sensors, 12, pp. 8338-
8354; doi:10.3390/s120608338.

[4] Schiefelbein, S. L., Fried, N. A., Rhoads, K. G., and Sadowayc, D. R.,
“A High-Accuracy, Calibration-Free Technique for Measuring the
Electrical Conductivity of Liquids,” Review of Scientific Intruments,
69, 9, pp. 3308-3313.

[5] Shaopeng Hu, Kaihua Wu, Haibo Wang, and Jiang Chen., “Electrical
conductivity measurement method in seawater desalination based on
variable frequency excitation,” The Ninth International Conference on
Electronic Measurement & Instruments, pp. 810-813.

[6] Padma Suvarna, R., Raghavendra Rao, K., and Subbarangaiah, K.
(2002). “A simple technique for a.c. conductivity measurements,”
Bulletin of Materials Science, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 647-651.

[7] Rajendrana, A., and Neelamegam, P., “ Measurement of conductivity
of liquids using AT89C55WD microcontroller,” Measurement, 35, pp.
59-63.
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5. Hayashi M. Temperature-electrical conductivity relation of water for environmental monitoring and geophysical data inversion. // Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. – 2004. v.96. P. 119–128.

Abstract:
Electrical conductivity (EC) is widely used for monitoring the mixing of fresh water and saline water, separating stream hydrographs, and geophysical mapping of contaminated groundwater. The measured EC values at various temperatures need to be reported as corresponding to a standard temperature because EC is dependent on temperature. An arbitrary constant is commonly used for temperature compensation assuming that EC-temperature relation is linear (for example 2% increase of EC per 1 ◦C). This paper examines the EC-temperature relation of natural waters having vastly different compositions and salinities. EC-temperature relation was slightly nonlinear in a temperature range 0–30 ◦C, but the linear equation approximated the relation reasonably well. The temperature compensation factor corresponding to 25 ◦C ranged between 0.0175 and 0.0198. When the mean value 0.0187 was used, the error of estimating EC at 25 ◦C from EC at 10 ◦C was less than about 2% for all samples tested. Temperature compensation factors vary substantially depending on the choice of standard temperature. Therefore, a care must be taken when standard temperatures different from 25 ◦C are used.

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References
Chang, C., Sommerfeldt, T. G., Carefoot, J.M. and Schaalje, G. B.: 1983, ‘Relationships of electrical
conductivity with total dissolved salts and cation concentration of sulfate-dominant soil extracts’,
Can. J. Soil Sci. 63, 79−86.

Clesceri, L. S., Greenberg, A. E. and Eaton, A. D.: 1998, Standard Methods for the Examination of
Water and Wastewater, 20th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
Dingman, S. L.: 2002, Physical Hydrology, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Frohlich, R. K. and Urish, D. W.: 2002, ‘The use of geoelectrics and test wells for the assessment of
groundwater quality of a coastal industrial site’, J. Appl. Geophys. 50, 261−278.

Hem, J. D.: 1985, Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water, 3rd
ed., U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254.

Hiscock, K. M., Dennis, P. F., Saynor, P. R. and Thomas, M. O.: 1996, ‘Hydrochemical and stable
isotope evidence for the extent and nature of the effective Chalk aquifer of north Norfolk, U.K.’,
J. Hydrology 180, 79−107.

Jacobson, G. and Jankowski, J.: 1989, ‘Groundwater-discharge processes at a central Australian
playa’, J. Hydrology 105, 275−295.

Jellison, R., MacIntyre, S. and Millero, F. J.: 1999. ‘Density and conductivity properties of Na-CO3-
Cl-SO4 brine from Mono Lake, California, U.S.A.’, Internat. J. Salt Lake Res. 8, 41−53.

Jones, B. F., Eugster, H. P. and Rettig, S. L.: 1977, ‘Hydrochemistry of the Lake Magadi basin,
Kenya’, Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 41, 53−72.

Keller, G. V. and Frischknecht, F. C.: 1966, Electrical Methods in Geophysical Prospecting,
Pargamon Press, Oxford.
Kobayashi, D.: 1986, ‘Separation of a snowmelt hydrograph by stream conductance’, J. Hydrology
84, 157−165.

Korson, L., Drost-Hansen, W. and Millero, F. J.: 1969, ‘Viscosity of water at various temperatures’,
J. Phys. Chem. 73, 34−39.

Lide, D. R.: 2000, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 81st ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton,
Florida.
Matthess, G.: 1982, The Properties of Groundwater, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Millero, F. J.: 2001, The Physical Chemistry of Natural Waters, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Plummer, L. N., Parkhurst, D. L., Flemming, G. W. and Dunkle, S. A.: 1988, ‘A Computer Program
Incorporating Pitzer’s Equations for Calculation of Geochemical Reactions in Brines’, U.S.
Geological Survey Water Investigations Report, 88-4153.

Robinson, R. A. and Stokes, R. H.: 1965, Electrolyte Solutions, Butterworths, London, U.K.
Sorensen, J. A. and Glass, G. E.: 1987, ‘Ion and temperature dependence of electrical conductance
for natural waters’, Analyt. Chem. 59, 1594−1597.

Yechieli, Y., Kafri, U., Goldman, M. and Voss, C. I.: 2001, ‘Factors controlling the configuration of
the fresh-saline water interface in the Dead Sea coastal aquifers: Synthesis of TDEMsurveys and
numerical groundwater modeling’, Hydrogeol. J. 9, 367−377.

Zimmerman, E. P., Bentley, L. R. and Hayashi, M.: 2001, ‘The Verification of Electrical Resistivity
Imaging in the Study of Saline and Fresh Groundwater Interaction at Lydden Lake, SK’, in
Proceedings of the Second Joint Conference of the International Association of Hydrogeologists
Canadian National Chapter and the Canadian Geotechnical Society, Calgary, Alberta, Canada,
16−19 September, pp. 952−958.
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6. Mun˜oz D.R., Berga S.C.. An analog electronic interface to measure electrical conductivity in liquids // Measurement. – 2005. V.38. P. 181–187.

Abstract: Measuring conductivity in aqueous solutions is a problem which is not easy to solve due to the differences in mass and mobility that exist between ions conduction and electrons. Additionally, it is necessary to keep in mind the interaction processes electrode-solution. As a consequence, the electrolytic conductivity cell has to be polarized with alternating voltage of adequate amplitude and frequency in order to extract the correct information. In this paper an electronic conditioning circuit is presented which converts electric conductivity into a value of continuous voltage. A hardware solution is proposed to do the conductivity temperature compensation. Experimental results obtained in KCl solutions are also offered by following a close discussion of them.  2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Image Fig. 2. Analog electronic interface.

References
[1] J. Braunstein, G.D. Robbins, Electrolytic conductance
measurements and capacitive balance, Journal of Chemical
Education 48 (1) (1981) 52–59.

[2] E. Ferrara, L. Callegaro, F. Durbiano, Optimal frequency
range for the measurement of AC conductivity in aqueous
solutions, in: 17th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement
Technology Conference, Baltimore, May, 2000.

[3] X. Li, G.C.M. Meijer, A low-cost and accurate interface for
conductivity sensors, in: 19th IEEE Instrumentation and
Measurement Technology Conference, Anchorage, AK,
USA, 21–23 May, 2002.

[4] A. Rajendran, P. Neelamegam, Measurement of conductivity
of liquids using AT89C55WD microcontroller, Measurement
35 (2004) 59–63.

[5] W. Go¨ pel, J. Hesse, J.N. Zemel (Eds.), Sensors. A Comprehensive
Survey, Chemical and Biochemical Sensors, Part
I, vol. 2, VCH, Weinheim, 1991.

[6] G.W. Ewing, Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis,
McGraw-Hill College, 1995.

[7] R. Palla´s Areny, J.G. Webster, Sensors and Signal Conditioning,
John Wiley, New York, 1991.

[8] S. Franco, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog
Integrated Circuits, McGraw-Hill Int. Ed., New York, 1988.
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7. Anas M. N., Ahmad M. N. Development of Tetrapolar Conductivity Cell for Liquid Measurement Application // Sensors & Transducers. – 2014. Vol. 166, Issue 3. P. 39-43.

Abstract: This paper deals with the development of a liquid measuring instrumentation using the popular tetrapolar electrode configuration. The system consists of four-electrode ring shape using Cromium metal plate and a small measurement. The developed instrument is calibrated with the help of prepared saline solution prepared in lab. A liquid of known parameter is placed inside the measurement cell and current is injected through excitation electrode with certain frequency and voltage drop is measured across electrode potential terminals. From this voltages and cell constant value, the conductivity, resistivity and impedance of the measured liquid could be determined with acceptable accuracy with more than 96 % compared to the standard
measurement.

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References
[1]. L. A. Geddes, Who introduced the tetrapolar method
for measuring resistance and impedance ? IEEE
Magazine Engineering in Medicine and Biology,
Vol. 15, Issue 5, 1996, pp. 133-134.

[2]. A. O. Ragheb, L. A. Geddes, J. D. Bourland, and
W. A. Tacker, Tetrapolar electrode system for
measuring physiological events by impedance,
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing,
Vol. 30, Issue 1, 1992, pp. 115-117.

[3]. F. Graziottin, Conductivity Sensor, European Patent
Application, No. EP20040018125, 30 July 2004.

[4]. S. L. Schiefelbein, N. A. Fried, K. G. Rhoads, &
D. R. Sadoway, A high-accuracy, calibration-free
technique for measuring the electrical conductivity of
liquids, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 69,
Issue 9, 1998, pp. 3308-3313.

[5]. S. I. Bakhtiyarov and R. A. Overfelt, Electrical
conductivity measurements in liquid metals by
rotational technique, Journal of Materials Science,
Vol. 34, Issue 5, 1999, pp. 945-949.

[6]. Klaus Rommel, Cell for measurement of the
electrical conductivity of liquids, United States
Patent and Trademark Office, Patent No. 4,015,199,
29 March 1977.

[7]. P. Høyum, S. Grimnes, and Ø. G. Martinsen,
Geometry dependencies in tetrapolar electrode
systems – a finite element analysis on needle
electrodes, in Proceedings of the 13th International
Conference on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 8th
Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography,
Springer Berlin Heidelberg, January 2007,
pp. 198-200.

[8]. S. Grimnes, & O. G. Martinsen, Geometrical
analysis. Bioimpedance and bioelectricity basics,
Academic Press, San Diego, California, 2000,
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[9]. C. Littwitz, T. Ragheb, & L. A. Geddes, Cell constant
of the tetrapolar conductivity cell, Medical and
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Issue 6, 1990, pp. 587-590.
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8. Analog EC Meter SKU:DFR0300.

Abstract: Conductivity is the ability of substance to carry the current. It is the reciprocal of resistivity. In liquid, we often use the reciprocal of resistance, that is conductance, to measure the conductive capacity. The conductivity of water is a important indicator in the measurement of water quality. It can reflect the level of electrolytes present in the water. Depending on the concentration of the electrolyte, the conductivity of the aqueous solution is different. In the International System of Units, the uint of conductivity is Siemens / meter (S/m), and the other units are: S/m, mS/cm, μS/cm. Conversion relationship is: 1S/m = 1000mS/m = 1000000μS/m = 10mS/cm = 10000μS/cm.

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EC meter V1.0

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Connecting Diagram

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9. B.Saleha Begum, B.Ashraf Ahamed, Prof.A.Suresh Kumar, Prof.B.RamaMurthy, Dr. P.Thimmaiah, Dr. K.K.Azam Khan. Embedded Based Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurement System // IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS).- 2013. V.2., Issue 6. P.17-20.

Abstract: Electrical Conductivity measurements are often used to measure the amount of soluble salts in the soil. It is most common measure of soil salinity and is indicative of the ability of an aqueous solution to carry an electrical current. By Agricultural standards, soils with an Electrical Conductivity greater than 4 ds/m are considered for saline. In actually salt-sensitive plants may be affected by conductivities less than 4 ds/m and salt tolerant species may be impacted by concentrations of up to twice this maximum agricultural tolerant limit. Hence in the present an attempt is made to implement and embedded based soil conductivity meter.

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Details of the circuit


References
[1]. Geophysical Survey Systems athttp://www.geophysical.com.
[2]. Doolittle, J.A., K.A. Sudduth, N.R. Kitchen and S.J. Indorante. 1994. Estimating depths to claypans using electromagnetic induction methods. J. Soil and Water Cons. 49:572-575.
[3]. Geonics Limited. 1980. Electrical conductivity of soils and rocks. Technical Note 5. http://www.geonics.com/lit.html
[4]. Halvorson, A.D. and J.D. Rhoades. 1974. Assessing soil salinity and identifying potential s aline seep areas with field soil resistance measurements. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 38:576 -581.
[5]. Jaynes, D.B. 1996. Improved soil mapping using electromagnetic induction surveys. Precision
[6]. Agriculture, Proceedings of the 3rdInternational Conference, Ed. P.C. Robert, R.H. Rust and W.E.Larson. p. 169-179.
[7]. Jaynes, D.B., J.M. Novak, T.B. Moorman and C.A. Cambardella. 1994. Estimating herbicide partition coefficients from electromagnetic induction measurements. J. Environ. Qual. 24:26-41.
[8]. ArchanaMangla&Anjansil, indian J Pure & Apply Phys, 39 (2001) 267.
[9]. Sheehan W F, Physical Chemistry (Prentice Hall of India), 1966,412.
[10]. Takagishi E, IEEE Trans Instrum, Meas, 29 (1980) 131.
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10. “Theory and application of conductivity”, Application Data Sheet, ADS 43-018/rev.D, Jan. 2010.

Abstract: Conductivity is a measure of how well a solution conducts electricity. To carry a current a solution must contain charged particles, or ions. Most conductivity measurements are made in aqueous solutions, and the ions responsible for the conductivity come from electrolytes dissolved in the water. Salts (like sodiumchloride and magnesium sulfate), acids (like hydrochloric acid and acetic acid), and bases (like sodium hydroxide and ammonia) are all electrolytes. Although water itself is not an electrolyte, it does have a very small conductivity, implying that at least some ions are present. The ions are hydrogen and hydroxide, and they originate from the dissociation of molecular water.

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