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НИЛ АСЭМ Научно - исследовательская лаборатория автоматизированных систем экологического мониторинга

Экологический мониторинг

Подборка научных статей

by Admin » Mon Mar 26, 2018 9:43 am

1. Beri N. N. Wireless Sensor Network Based System Design for Chemical Parameter Monitoring In Water // International Journal of Electronics, Communication & Soft Computing Science and Engineering. – 2014. Vol.3. No.6. P.1-8.

Abstract: Determination of natural freshwater qualities in the absence of significant direct human impact, the critical water quality parameters are essential to be monitored for the health of the creatures. An autonomous real time device to measure the physical and chemical parameters such as (PH, Temperature, Turbidity) in water using Arduino Atmega 2560 Microcontroller is developed which is capable of generating alarms & sending information in the form of alerts of the abnormality of a particular quality parameter or of an overheaded tank to the authenticated user using Zigbee, as the sensors detects the threshold level values. The data is manipulated through Atmega microcontroller which transmits the data through Zigbee and also displayed onto the LCD. The device is designed for domestic purpose with much importance given to cost & power consumption. This paper is an attempt to explore basic physical & chemical sensors as per the WHO guidelines.

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[1] Muhammad Azwan Nasirudin, Ummi Nurulhaiza Za’bah & O.Sidek,
”Fresh Water Real-Time Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor
Network and GSM” 2011 IEEE Conference on Open Systems-ICOS,
Malaysia, 2011.

[2] R. Balaji, R. Ganesan, “Remote Water Pollution Monitoring System
Using GSM”, Proc. of the Intl. Conf. on Advances in Computer,
Electronics and Electrical Engineering Editor In Chief Dr. R. K. Singh,
Copyright © 2012 Universal Association of Computer and Electronics
Engineers. All rights reserved. ISBN: 978-981-07-1847-3 doi:
10.3850/978-981-07-1847-3 P0517

[3] Xiping Yang, Keat G. Ong, William R. Dreschel, KefengZeng, Casey
S. Mungle and Craig A. Grimes, “Design of a Wireless Sensor Network for
Long-term, In-Situ Monitoring of an Aqueous Environment” USA, 2002

[4] Dong He, Li-Xin Zhang, “The Water Quality Monitoring System Based
on WSN”, 978-1-4577-1415-3/12/$26.00 ©2012 IEEE, China

[5] Zulhani Rasin and Mohd Rizal Abdullah, “Water Quality Monitoring
System Using Zigbee Based Wireless Sensor Network” Malaysia,
International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 09,
No: 10 91410-7575 © December 2009

[6] Christopher D. Kelley, Alexander Krolick, Logan Brunner, Alison
Burklund, Daniel Kahn, William P. Ball and Monroe Weber-Shirk, “An
Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter”, Sensors 2014, Open Access
Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, 22 April 2014.

[7] Arduino Cookbook, 2nd Edition by Michael Margolis

[8] Programming Arduino Getting Started with Sketches 1st Edition
(Paperback) by Simon Monk

[9] Building Wireless Sensor Networks by Robert Faludi

[10] WHO guidelines for drinking water

[11] “An affordable open source Turbidimeter” Sensors 2014, ISSN 1424-

[12] "Human Agency, Environmental Drivers, and Western Juniper
Establishment During the Late Holocene", located


[14] "Operational Guide", located on: ... a_2005.pdf

[15]"Coordinated Activation and Reporting for Energy-Efficient Target
Intrusion Detection, Tracking, and Reporting in Wireless Sensor
Networks", located on: ... ns/car.pdf

[16] "SiGe BiCMOS PAM-4 Clock and Data Recovery Circuit for High-
Speed Serial Communications", located

[17] "Miniature Fiber Optic Pressure Sensors for Intervertebral Disc
Pressure Measurements in Rodents", located on: ... d-4810.pdf

[18] "Integrating Heterogeneous Wireless Technologies: A Cellular-
Assisted Mobile Ad hoc Networks", located

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by Admin » Mon Mar 26, 2018 10:56 am

2. Hasan M.T., Khan S. GSM Based Automatic Water Quality Control Analysis. // International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering. – 2016. Vol. 5. No.6. P. 5522 – 5529.

Abstract: The common method of water quality testing is to collect samples manually and then send them to laboratory for analysis. However, it has been unable to meet the demands of water quality monitoring today. So a set of automatic measurement and reporting system of water quality has been developed. The system consists of ph sensor, turbidity sensor and conductivity sensors of water quality testing, single-chip microcontroller data acquisition module, information transmission module, monitoring center and other accessories. Various parameters of water quality are automatically detected under the control of single chip microcontroller all day. The single chip gets the data, and then processes and analyses them. After that, the data are nstantaneously sent to monitoring centre by GSM network in the form of SMS. If the water quality is unusual, the data will be sent to monitoring centre and management’s mobile in the same way at the same time. It is agreeable for management to take corresponding measures timely and be able to detect real-time situation of water quality remotely. The system has , recognize, the automation of water quality monitoring, intelligence of data analysing and networking of information transferring. It is characterized by advantages of shortcut, accuracy and using manpower and material resources sparingly. The system has widespread application value and can be extended and transplanted to other fields of automatic monitoring where needed.

Main Figures:

[1] Liu Yan, “Analysis of several water quality indicators in industrial effluent,” Applied Science,2009, 6:147.(in Chinese)

[2] Sun Xiaodong, Jing Yunpeng, “Sensors’ application to environmental monitoring,” Measurement and Testing Technology, 2006, 33(10):38-39. (in Chinese)

[3] Zhou Na, Zhu Yantao,Sensors in the application of water quality monitoring, Environmental Science Tribune, 2009 , 28 (Supplement): 119- 123. (in Chinese)

[4] Haron Nazleeni Samiha Mahamad Mohd Khuzaimi B. AzizIzzatdin Abdul, Mehat, Mazlina. “A system architecture for water quality monitoring system using wired sensors,” Proceedings International Symposium on Information Technology.2008, 3:1-7.

[5] Gold, “Steve.Cracking GSM,” Network Security, 2011, 4: 12-15.

[6] Wang Youshun, Lv Yang,The application of GSM module in smart home system,Yunnan University, 2009, 31: 119-121. (in Chinese)

[7] Wu Xiaoqing, Huhe Muren, GSM module communication controlled by single-chip,Nei Mongol Science and Technology and Economic,2010, 2:87-88. (in Chinese) 1010

[8] K.Rajasekar“measurement and analysis of water quality using gsm ” Volume No.03, Issue No. 03, March 2015

[9] Automated Water Quality Monitoring, Field Manual (1999), Ministry of Environment Lands, and Parks, Water Management Branch for the Aquatic Inventory Task Force Resources Inventory Committee, The Province of British Columbia, and Canada.
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by Admin » Mon Mar 26, 2018 10:59 am

3. Karthikeyan V., Geethanjali.S, Mekala.M, Deepika.T. Water Eminence Scrutinizing Scheme Based On Zigbee and Wireless Antenna Expertise - A Study // International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science Applications and Management Studies. – 2014. Vol.3. No.1. P.1-5.

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the essential structure of a water eminence monitoring by means of wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. To scrutinize water quality greater than different sites as a synchronized application, an estimable system structural design constituted by spread sensor nodes and a base station is suggested. The nodes and base stations are linked using WSN technology like Zigbee. Base stations are related via Ethernet. Design and execution of a prototype using WSN technology are the exigent work. Data’s are identified by means of dissimilar sensors at the node plane to compute the parameters like pH, turbidity and oxygen quantity is transmitted via WSN to the support station. Information unruffled from the distant location is capable of displayed in diagram set-up as well as it is able to be calculated using dissimilar replication tools at the supporting station. The recent methods have benefits such as null amount carbon emission, low power utilization, more stretchy to put together at distant locations.

Main Figures:

[1] Steven Silva, Hoang N Ghia Nguyen, Valentina Tiporlini and Kamal Alameh ―Web Based Water Quality Monitoring with Sensor Network: Employing Zigbee and WiMax Technologies by, 978-1-4577-1169-
5/11/26.00 ©2011 IEEE.

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[5] F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, ―Wireless sensor networks: a survey,‖ Computer Networks, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 393-422, 2002.

[6] Tuan Le Dinh; Wen Hu; Sikka, P.; Corke, P.; Overs, L.; Brosnan, S,―Design and Deployment of a Remote Robust Sensor Network: Experiences from an Outdoor Water Quality Monitoring Network, Local Computer Networks, 32nd IEEE Conference on, pp 799-806, 2007.

[7] Puccinelli, D.; Haenggi, M., ―Wireless sensor networks: applications and challenges of ubiquitous sensing,‖ Circuits and Systems Magazine, IEEE, Vol.5, Issue 3, 2005.

[8] Sunspot world. Available:
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by Admin » Mon Mar 26, 2018 11:05 am

4. Srivatsava A.S., Reddy P.R. Design of a Water Environment Monitoring System Based on IOT
Using Embedded Linux // International Jornal & Magazine of Engineering, Technology, Management and Research. – 2013. Vol.3. No. 9. P. 739-743.

Abstract: In order to ensure the safe supply of the drinking water the quality needs to be monitor in real time. In this paper we present a design and development of a low cost system for real time monitoring of the water quality in IOT(internet of things).the system consist of several sensors is used to measuring physical and chemical parameters of the water. The parameters such as temperature, PH, level indicator of the water can be measured. The measured values from the sensors can be processed by the core controller. The raspberry PI can be used as a core controller. Finally, the sensor data can be viewed on internet using cloud computing. Here DC motor is also connected to the processor for pumping purpose.

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[1] AlifSyarafiMohamad Nor, Mahdi Faramarzi, MohdAmriMdYunus, and Sallehuddin Ibrahim “Nitrate and Sulfate Estimations in Water Sources Using a Planar Electromagnetic Sensor Array and Artificial Neural Network Method,” IEEE sensors journal, vol.15, no. 1, January 2015.

[2] T. P. Lambrou, C. G. Panayiotou, and C. C. Anastasiou, “A low-cost system for real time monitoring and assessment of potable water quality at consumer sites,” in Proc. IEEE Sensors, Oct. 2012, pp. 1–4.

[3] S. Zhuiykov, “Solid-state sensors monitoring parameters of water quality for the next generation of
wireless sensor networks,” Sens. Actuators B, Chem,vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2012.

[4] A. Aisopou, I. Stoianov, and N. Graham, “In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems
under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: A quantitative assessment,” Water Res., vol. 46, no. 1,
pp.235–246, 2012.

[5] Marco Grossi, Roberto Lazzarini, Massimo Lanzoni, Anna Pompei, Diego Matteuzzi, and Bruno Riccò “A Portable Sensor With Disposable Electrodes for Water Bacterial Quality Assessment,” IEEE sensors journal, vol. 13, no. 5, May 2013.

[6] D.Uckelmann,M.Harrison and F.Michahelles, “An architecture approach towards the future Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2011, pp. 1-24.

[7] E. Fleisch, What is the Internet of Things: An Economics Perspective, AutoID Labs White Paper, WPBIZAPP-053, Jan. 2010.

[8] D. Paulraj, S. Swamynathan, and M. Madhaiyan, “Process model-based atomic service discovery and
composition of composite semantic web services using web ontology language for services,” Enterp. Inf.
Syst,vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 445–471, 2012.

[9] L. Ren, L. Zhang, F. Tao, X. Zhang, Y. Luo, and Y. Zhang, “Amethodology towards virtualizationbased
high performance simulation platform supporting multidisciplinary design of complex products,” Enterprise Inf. Syst., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 267–290, 2012.

[10] M. Spinola. (2013). “The Five Characteristics of Cloud Manufacturing Things,” eBook.

[11] D. M. Surgient. (2014). “The Five Defining Characteristics of Cloud Manufacturing,” eBook.
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by Admin » Mon Mar 26, 2018 11:21 am

5. Water Quality Measuring Station: pH, Turbidity and temperature measurement. Ed. By Bishal Sigdel. Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences., 2017.

Abstract: This project is carried out for the measurement of quality of water for the Metropolia UAS using sensors and microcontroller. Water is indispensable for the living beings, and clean water is critical because of the modern world pollutions into the water in different forms. This project focuses on how we can measure and analyse the quality of water.
This project focuses on measuring pH, Turbidity and Temperature of water. These three factors are considered because pH determines either the water be acidic or basic, Turbidity helps to determine the amount of solid particle, whereas these values may slightly differ with the change in temperature.
The need for maintaining the quality of water is essential since the water is used or con-sumed by living beings in many different ways. Whether it is for a human being or aquatic plants or fishes, the properly maintained water is crucial for the proper sustainability. The measurement was first carried out by taking each sensor separately. After the completions of analysing sensors result, the circuit was combined to work all sensors together in the same microcontroller. The data was presented in serial monitor and then to the LabVIEW. LabVIEW shows the graph of each voltage retrieved from the sensors. Finally, the value of all the sensors was presented clearly in the user interface made using LabVIEW.

Main Figures:
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by Admin » Mon Mar 26, 2018 1:03 pm

6. T.P. Lambrou, C.G. Panayiotou and C.C. Anastasiou. A Low-Cost Sensor Network for Real Time Monitoring and Contamination Detection in Drinking Water Distribution Systems, in IEEE Sensors 2014, P.1-10.

Abstract: This paper presents a low cost and holistic approach to the water quality monitoring problem for drinking water distribution systems as well as for consumer sites. Our approach is based on the development of low cost sensor nodes for real time and in pipe monitoring and assessment of water quality on the fly. The main sensor node consists of several in-pipe electrochemical and optical sensors and emphasis is given on low cost, lightweight implementation and reliable long time operation. Such implementation is suitable for large scale deployments enabling a sensor network approach for providing spatiotemporally rich data to water consumers, water companies and authorities. Extensive literature and market research is erformed to identify low cost sensors that can reliably monitor several parameters which can be used to infer the water quality. Based on selected parameters a sensor array is developed along with several microsystems for analog signal conditioning, processing, logging, and remote presentation of data. Finally, algorithms for fusing on-line multi sensor measurements at local level are developed to assess the water contamination risk. Experiments are performed to evaluate and validate these algorithms on intentional contamination events of various concentrations of escherichia coli bacteria and heavy metals (arsenic). Experimental results indicate that this inexpensive system is capable of detecting these high impact contaminants at fairly low concentrations. The results demonstrate that this system satisfies the on-line, in-pipe, low deployment-operation cost and good detection accuracy criteria of an ideal early warning system.

Main Figures:


[1] T.P. Lambrou, C.C. Anastasiou , C.G. Panayiotou, A Nephelometric
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Sensor Networks Applications, Experimentation and Logistics, 2009

[2] T.P. Lambrou, C.G. Panayiotou and C.C. Anastasiou, A Low-Cost System
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by Admin » Wed Mar 28, 2018 11:28 am

7. Susmitha P., Sowmyabala G. Design and Implementation of Weather Monitoring and Controlling System // International Journal of Computer Applications. – 2014. Vol. 97. No. 3. P. 19-22.

Abstrect: Weather monitoring plays an important role in human life, so the collection of information about the temporal dynamics of weather changes is very important. In any industry during certain hazards it is very important to monitor weather. The fundamental aim of this paper is to develop an embedded system to design a weather monitoring system which enables the monitoring of weather parameters in an industry. Such a system contains pair of sensors like temperature, Gas and humidity will be monitored and LPC1768 microcontroller (ARM9). The data from the sensors are collected by the microcontroller and also microcontroller sends the sensors data in to the LABVIEW by using the Serial Communication and this module will keep the data in excel page & also we can get the SMS in the mobile with the help of GSM module. The system uses a compact circuitry built around LPC1768 (ARM9) microcontroller Programs are developed in Embedded C using the IDE Keiluvision4. JTAG is used for loading programs into Microcontroller.

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by Admin » Wed Mar 28, 2018 12:43 pm

8. Jiang J., Tseng C., Lu F., Yang C., Wu Z., Chen C., Lin S., Lin K., Liao C. A GSM-based remote wireless automatic monitoring system for field information: A case study for ecological monitoring of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) // Computers and electronics in agriculture. – 2008. Vol. 62. P. 243–259.

Abstract: Monitoring field conditions is the foundation of modern agricultural management. In order to improve the efficiency of the data collection procedure, and to improve the precision with which agricultural operations are managed, it is necessary that we have an automated system that collects environmental data, especially to record long-term and up-to-the-minute environmental fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to design a remote pest monitoring system based on wirelesscommunication technology. This system automatically reports environmental conditions and traps pest in real-time. The data we acquired was integrated into a database for census and further analysis. The system consists of two components, a remote monitoring platform (RMP) and a host control platform (HCP). Furthermore, based on the biocharacteristics of the oriental fruit fly, a high precision automated trapping and counting device was designed. This device counts the number of trapped flies and then sends the information back to the RMP. The RMP is in charge of acquiring the environmental data and the number of trapped flies, and it sends all the data back to the HCP in the form of a short cell phone message through the wireless Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM). Our system then transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from RMP to HCP. The function of the HCP is to receive and store, display, and analyze the database on line. It also provides functions like inquiries, early warning, and announcements. The system was field tested over a 1-year period (March 2006 to July 2007), and the experimental results demonstrated that it can monitor the environmental parameters and population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly in real-time. Based on the long-term monitoring database acquired by our system, the relationship between the population dynamics of the fruit fly and the environmental changes can be easily analyzed. With the help of this system, researchers can judge the correlation of the occurrence of the oriental fruit fly and climate conditions. Since the long-term database provides us with the details of the population dynamics of the fruit fly, the system allows us to control the pest in time and reduce agricultural losses. The experimental results demonstrate that large scale, long distance, and long-term monitoring for agricultural information can be achieved by using our proposed monitoring system. Much improved spatial resolution and temporal resolution is obtained compared to traditional methods for monitoring the data of the oriental fruit fly based on environmental changes.

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9. Vaishnavi V.,M.A Gaikwad. Water Quality Monitoring System Based on IOT // Advances in Wireless and Mobile Communications. - 2017. Vol.10. No.5. P.1107-1116.

Abstract:Water pollution is one of the biggest fears for the green globalization. In order to ensure the safe supply of the drinking water the quality needs to be monitor in real time. In this paper we present a design and development of a low cost system for real time monitoring of the water quality in IOT(internet of things).The system consist of several sensors is used to measuring physical and chemical parameters of the water. The parameters such as temperature, PH, turbidity, flow sensor of the water can be measured. The measured values from the sensors can be processed by the core controller. The Arduino model can be used as a core controller. Finally, the sensor data can be viewed on internet using WI-FI system.

Main Figures:



[1] Nikhil Kedia, Water Quality Monitoring for Rural Areas- A Sensor Cloud
Based Economical Project, in 1st International Conference on Next
Generation Computing Technologies (NGCT-2015) Dehradun, India, 4-5
September 2015. 978-1-4673-6809-4/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE.

[2] Jayti Bhatt, Jignesh Patoliya, Iot Based Water Quality Monitoring System,
IRFIC, 21feb,2016.

[3] Michal lom, ondrej priby & miroslav svitek, Internet 4.0 as a part of smart
cities, 978-1-5090-1116-2/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE.

[4] Zhanwei Sun, Chi Harold Liu, Chatschik Bisdikia_, Joel W. Branch and Bo
Yang, 2012 9th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor,
Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks.

[5] (SECON), 978-1-4673-1905-8/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE.

[6] Sokratis Kartakis, Weiren Yu, Reza Akhavan, and Julie A. McCann, 2016
IEEE First International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and
Implementation, 978-1-4673-9948-7/16 © 2016IEEE.

[7] Mithaila Barabde, shruti Danve, Real Time Water Quality Monitoring System,
IJIRCCE, vol 3, June 2015.

[8] Akanksha Purohit, Ulhaskumar Gokhale, Real Time Water Quality
Measurement System based on GSM , IOSR (IOSR-JECE) Volume 9, Issue 3,
Ver. V (May - Jun. 2014).

[9] Eoin O’Connell, Michael Healy, Sinead O’Keeffe, Thomas Newe, and Elfed
Lewis, IEEE sensors journal, vol. 13, no. 7, July 2013, 1530-437x/$31.00 ©
2013 IEEE.

[10] Nidal Nasser, Asmaa Ali, Lutful Karim, Samir Belhaouari, 978-1-4799-
0792-2/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE.

[11] Niel Andre cloete, Reza Malekian and Lakshmi Nair, Design of Smart Sensors
for Real-Time Water Quality monitoring, ©2016 IEEE conference.
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by Admin » Thu Mar 29, 2018 3:00 pm

10. Mane V., Medsinge P., Chavan A., Patil S. Water Quality Measuring System Using Wireless Sensor Network // International research journal of engineering and technology (irjet). - 2017. Vol. 4. No. 2. P. 1926-1930.

Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) is the simple and basic way to measure the quality of water using wireless sensor network technology powered by solar panel. To measure the quality of water in a real time application, a base station and corresponding different sensor nodes are used to cover the large area. As this work is done in a remote area with limited access, signal from the sensors will collected and transmitted wirelessly to the base monitoring station. So the application of wireless sensor network (WSN) for a water quality measuring consists of a number of sensor nodes. Such monitoring system will results into low cost, easy installation, easy handling and low maintenance system. Basically, the use of wireless system for monitoring purpose will not only reduce the overall monitoring system cost in terms of labor cost, but also will provide large covering area. In this paper, we discussed the fundamental design and implementation of WSN using a high power transmission RF based technology. It is chosen due to its features like a low cost, easy to use, minimal power consumption and efficient data communication between different sensor nodes. Also for monitoring purpose the graphical user interface (GUI) is developed at the base monitoring station. It is used to monitor the water parameters continuously in real time. GUI is designed using MATLAB & VB because of low cost and easy customization.

Main Figures:



[1] “Web Based Water Quality Monitoring with Sensor Network: Employing ZigBee and WiMax Technologies” by Steven Silva, Hoang N ghia Nguyen , Valentina Tiporlini and Kamal Alameh, 978-1-4577-1169-5/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE.

[2] Jiang Peng, Huang Qingbo, Wang Jianzhong Research on Wireless Sensor Networks Routing Protocol for Water EnvironmentMonitoring 0-7695-2616-0/06 2006 IEEE.

[3] F.Akyildiz lan, Su Weilian, Sankarasubramaniam Yogesh etc. A Survey on Sensor Networks 0163-6804/02 2002 IEEE.

[4] Tuan Le Dinh; Wen Hu; Sikka, P.; Corke, P.; Overs, L.; Brosnan, S,“Design and Deployment of a Remote Robust Sensor Network: Experiences from an Outdoor Water Quality Monitoring Network, ”Local Computer Networks, 32nd IEEE Conference on, pp 799-806, 2007.

[5] “Solar based advanced water quality monitoring system using wireless sensor network”, R.Karthik Kumar, M.Chandra Mohan, S.Vengateshapandiyan, (IJSETR), Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014.

[6] “Water Quality Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks”, Shruti Sridharan, (IJARECE) Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2014.

[7] “Water Quality Monitoring System Using Zig-Bee and Solar Power Supply” Amruta Amit Joshi, (IJAREIE), Vol. 4, Issue 10, October 2015.

[8] “Smart Device to monitor water quality to avoid pollution in IoT environment”, Pandian D R, Dr. Mala K, (IJETCSE), Volume 12, Issue 2-January 2015.

[9] “Water Eminence Scrutinizing Scheme Based On Zigbee and Wireless Antenna Expertise - A Study”, V.Karthikeyan,

[10] Zulhani Rasin and Mohd Abdullah International Journal Engineering & Technology,"Water Quality Monitoring System Using Zigbee Based Wireless Sensor Network", IJET Vol:9 No:10.

[11] J Goldman and D Estrin ,”Distributed Sensing System for Water Quality Assessment and Management”,Feb1,2007, =rep1&type=pdf

[12] R R.Lakhe, “Wireless Network Using Zigbee”, International Journal of Engineering research and Applications”(IJERA),[5]Zigbee,Wikipedia,

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