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НИЛ АСЭМ Научно - исследовательская лаборатория автоматизированных систем экологического мониторинга

pH - метрия

Подборка научных статей

by Admin » Wed Jun 06, 2018 12:10 pm

11. Norman F. Sheppard, Jr., Anthony Guiseppi–Elie. pH Measurement / © 1999 by CRC Press LLC.

Abstract: The measurement of pH is arguably the most widely performed test in the chemical laboratory, reflecting the importance of water as a ubiquitous solvent and reactant. In the 90 years since the first use of an electrode to determine hydrogen ion concentration, the glass electrode and its variants have matured into routine tools of analytical and process chemists. Yet, there continue to be developments that promise to broaden the scope and reach of these measurements. Among recent developments are miniature pHsensitive field-effect transistors (pHFETS) being incorporated into pocket-sized pH “pens,” metal/metal oxide pH sensors for measurements at high temperatures and pressures, and flexible fiber-optic pH sensors for measuring pH within the body. This chapter discusses electrochemical and optical methods for pH measurement, and is by necessity limited in scope.

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References
1. H. Galster, pH Measurement: Fundamentals, Methods, Applications, Instrumentation. New York:
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2. D.A. Skoog, D.M. West, and F.J. Holler, Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 7th ed., Philadelphia,
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10. M.J.P. Leiner and O. Wolfbeis, Fiber optic pH sensors, in O. Wolfbeis (Ed.) Fiber Optic Chemical
Sensors and Biosensors. Vol. 1, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1991.
11. J. Janata, Do optical sensors really measure pH?, Anal. Chem., 59, 1351-1356, 1987.
12. J. Janata, M. Josowicz and D.M. DeVaney, Chemical sensors, Anal. Chem., 66, 207R-228R, 1994.
13. J.I. Peterson, S.R. Goldstein, R.V. Fitzgerald, and D.K. Buchwald, Fiber optic pH probe for physiological
use, Anal. Chem., 52, 864-869, 1980.
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Conductive Polymers, 2nd edition, Chap. 34, p. 963, New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996.
16. N.F. Sheppard Jr., M.J. Lesho, P. McNally, and A.S. Francomacaro, Microfabricated conductimetric
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17. J.B. Yim, G.E. Khalil, R.J. Pihl, B.D. Huss and G.G. Vurek, Apparatus for Continuously Monitoring
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19. R. Haugland (Ed.), Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Chemicals, 6th ed., Chap. 23,
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by Admin » Tue Jun 19, 2018 1:31 pm

12. T.Y. Kim, S. A. Hong, S. Y. A Solid-State Thin-Film Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode Coated with Graphene Oxide and Its Use in a pH Sensor // Sensors. – 2015. Vol. 15. P. 6469-6482.

Abstract: In this study, we describe a novel solid-state thin-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode (SSRE) that was coated with a protective layer of graphene oxide (GO). This layer was prepared by drop casting a solution of GO on the Ag/AgCl thin film. The potential differences exhibited by the SSRE were less than 2 mV for 26 days. The cyclic voltammograms of the SSRE were almost similar to those of a commercial reference electrode, while the diffusion coefficient of Fe(CN)63− as calculated from the cathodic peaks of the SSRE was 6.48 × 10−6 cm2/s. The SSRE was used in conjunction with a laboratory-made working electrode to determine its suitability for practical use. The average pH sensitivity of this combined sensor was 58.5 mV / pH in the acid-to-base direction; the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99. In addition, an integrated pH sensor that included the SSRE was packaged in a secure digital (SD) card and tested. The average sensitivity of the chip was 56.8 mV / pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99. In addition, a pH sensing test was also performed by using a laboratory-made potentiometer, which showed a sensitivity of 55.4 mV / pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99.

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References
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2. Kurzweil, P. Metal Oxides and Ion-Exchanging Surfaces as pH Sensors in Liquids: State-of-the-Art and Outlook. Sensors 2009, 6, 4955–4985.

3. Noh, J.; Park, S.; Boo, H.; Kim, H.C.; Chung, T.D. Nanoporous platinum solid-state reference electrode with layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte junction for pH sensing chip. Lab Chip 2011, 11, 664–671.

4. Suzuki, H.; Hiratsuka, A.; Sasaki, S.; Karube, L. Problems associated with the thin-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a novel structure with improved durability. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1998, 46, 104–113.

5. Polk, B.J.; Stelzenmuller, A.; Mijares, G.; MacCrehan, W.; Gaitan, M. Ag/AgCl microelectrodes with improved stability for microfluidics. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2006, 114, 239–247.

6. Kim, H.R.; Kim, Y.D.; Kim, K.I.; Shim, J.H.; Nam, H.; Kang, B.K. Enhancement of physical and chemical properties of thin film Ag/AgCl reference electrode using a Ni buffer layer. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2004, 97, 348–354.

7. Ameida, F.L.; Cardoso, J.L.; Igarashi, M.O.; dos Santos Filho, S.G.; Jiménez-Jorquera, C.; Fontes, M.B.A. Fabrication process of Ag/AgCl reference pseudo-electrode based on electrodeposition of Au on Pt surfaces from formaldehyde baths: Chemical Stability and Adherence. ECS Trans. 2009, 23, 255–262.

8. Kwon, N.H.; Lee, K.S.; Won, M.S.; Shim, Y.B. An all-solid-state reference electrode based on the layer-by-layer polymer coating. Analyst 2007, 132, 906–912.

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10. Nolan, M.A.; Tan, S.H.; Kounaves, S.P. Fabrication and characterization of a solid state reference electrode for electroanalysis of natural waters with ultramicroelectrodes. Anal. Chem. 1997, 69, 1244–1247.

11. Matsumoto, T.; Ohashi, A.; Ito, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Matsumoto, T. A long-term lifetime amperometric glucose sensor with a perfluorocarbon polymer coating. Biosens. Bioelectron. 2001, 16, 271–276.

12. Shinwari, M.W.; Zhitomirsky, D.; Deen, I.A.; Selvaganapathy, P.R.; Deen, M.J.; Landheer, D. Microfabricated reference electrodes and their biosensing applications. Sensors 2010, 10, 1679–1715.

13. Suzuki, H.; Shiroishi, H.; Sasaki, S.; Karube, I. Microfabricated liquid junction Ag/AgCl reference electrode and its application to a one-chip potentiometric sensor. Anal. Chem. 1999, 71, 5069–5075.

14. Simonis, A.; Krings, T.; Lüth, H.; Wang, J.; Schöning, M.J. A “hybrid” thin-film pH sensor with integrated thick-film reference. Sensors 2001, 1, 183–192.

15. Elsen, H.A.; Monson, C.F.; Majda, M. Effects of electrodeposition conditions and protocol on the properties of iridium oxide pH sensor electrodes. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2009, 156, F1–F6.

16. Kadara, R.O.; Jenkinson, N.; Banks, C.E. Characterization and fabrication of disposable screen printed microelectrodes. Electrochem. Commun. 2009, 11, 1377–1380.

17. Kinlen, P.J.; Heider, J.E.; Hubbard, D.E. A solid-state pH sensor based on a Nafion-coated iridium oxide indicator electrode and a polymer-based silver chloride reference electrode. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1994, 22, 13–25.

18. Kreider, K.G.; Tarlov, M.J.; Cline, J.P. Sputtered thin-film pH electrodes of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, and iridium oxides. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1995, 28, 167–172.

19. Cogan, S.F.; Ehrlich, J.; Plante, T.D.; Smirnov, A.; Shire, D.B.; Gingerich, M.; Rizzo, J.F. Sputtered iridium oxide films for neural stimulation electrodes. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B 2008, 89, 353–361.

20. Katsube, T.; Lauks, L.; Zemel, J.N. pH-sensitive sputtered iridium oxide films. Sensors Actuators 1982, 2, 399–410.

21. Yang, H.S.; Kang, S.K.; Choi, C.A.; Kim, H.; Shin, D.H.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.T. An iridium oxide reference electrode for use in microfabricated biosensors and biochips. Lab Chip 2004, 4, 42–46.

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23. Matsumoto, T.; Ohashi, A.; Ito, N. Development of a micro-planar Ag/AgCl quasi-reference electrode with long-term stability for an amperometric glucose sensor. Anal. Chim. Acta 2002, 462, 253–259.

24. Idegami, K.; Chikae1, M.; Nagatani, N.; Tamiya, E.; Takamura, Y. Fabrication and characterization of planar screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode for disposable sensor strip. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2010, 49, doi:10.1143/JJAP.49.097003.

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27. Kim, T.Y.; Yang, S. Fabrication method and characterization of electrodeposited and heat-treated iridium oxide films for pH sensing. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2014, 196, 31–38.

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by Admin » Tue Jun 19, 2018 2:58 pm

13. Xuelun Hu, Yaoguang Wei, Yingyi Chen, Chunhong Liu. Design of the Smart pH Sensor Based on Ion Selection Electrode // Sensors & Transducers. – 2014. Vol. 26. P. 92-100.

Abstract: In aquaculture pH is one of the important indicators which affect cultivation objects’ healthy growth, whether pH value is normal or not would affect the survival of cultured objects. The traditional pH detecting method has poor stability and reliability, a smart pH sensor which is based on ion selective electrode has been designed in this paper, it adopts positive and negative double power to solve the problem of power supply, the self-excited prevented and impedance matching circuit has been designed to eliminate the selfexcited oscillation circuit's influence on the measurement accuracy. The filter circuit has been designed to prevent the interference of the power frequency noise signal effectively, the zero and range adjustment circuit has been designed to expand the scope of the sensor. The temperature compensation correction model has been proposed to solve the problem of temperature compensation. The experiment results have shown that the developed sensor has good stability, reliability, and suitable for pH monitoring in aquaculture water quality. Copyright © 2014 IFSA Publishing, S. L.

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References
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by Admin » Tue Jun 19, 2018 3:38 pm

14. Vashu Devan. pH Wireless Sensor Network for the meat tenderizing process / A thesis submitted to Auckland University of Technology in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering. 2010 School of Engineering.

Abstract: The wireless sensor network is a paradigm shift from the conventional wired system and has made remarkable progress in the last ten years. The system is cost effective, efficient, and user friendly as there is no need for external cables to interconnect devices. There are significant opportunities widely available to assess existing wired systems, and with thorough feasibility studies, most of these could be easily converted into wireless systems. A conceptual pH Wireless Sensor Network based on decentralized architectural paradigm is proposed in this thesis to introduce wireless connectivity and enhance system characteristics of a wired meat tenderising system. The network consists of pH Sensor Nodes and Stimuli Actuator Nodes. The focus of this thesis is the architectural design of these nodes and development of prototypes. Carcass pH is determined non-intrusively using a proprietary pH analysis alogrithm and process. This method enables pH analysis of carcasses in a meat plant without stopping the conveyor. The basis of the design is distributed processing and the collaborative nature of a Wireless Sensor Network. This showed that a network of sensor/actuator nodes could replace the existing wired meat tenderizing system and effectively handle the meat tenderizing process. The wireless sensor network is a paradigm shift from the conventional wired system and has made remarkable progress in the last ten years. The system is cost effective, efficient, and user friendly as there is no need for external cables to interconnect devices. There are significant opportunities widely available to assess existing wired systems, and with thorough feasibility studies, most of these could be easily converted into wireless systems. A conceptual pH Wireless Sensor Network based on decentralized architectural paradigm is proposed in this thesis to introduce wireless connectivity and enhance system characteristics of a wired meat tenderising system. The network consists of pH Sensor Nodes and Stimuli Actuator Nodes. The focus of this thesis is the architectural design of these nodes and development of prototypes. Carcass pH is determined non-intrusively using a proprietary pH analysis alogrithm and process. This method enables pH analysis of carcasses in a meat plant without stopping the conveyor. The basis of the design is distributed processing and the collaborative nature of a Wireless Sensor Network. This showed that a network of sensor/actuator nodes could replace the existing wired meat tenderizing system and effectively handle the meat tenderizing process. The objectives of the project were met following the set up of the ZigBig network to simulate meat tenderizing process control, and design of the sensor node and actuator node architecture. A set of standard tools were also determined as part of the project, and are readily available in the market. The major achievement of the project was the development of sensor node and actuator node prototypes, consistent with the expectations of the sponsors and handed over to Merit of Measurement, Auckland.

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15. Sun A., Phelps T., Yao C., Venkatesh A. G., Conrad D. Smartphone-Based pH Sensor for Home Monitoring of Pulmonary Exacerbations in Cystic Fibrosis // Sensors. – 2017. Vol.17. 1245; doi:10.3390/s17061245.

Abstract: Currently, Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients lack the ability to track their lung health at home, relying instead on doctor checkups leading to delayed treatment and lung damage. By leveraging theubiquity of the smartphone to lower costs and increase portability, a smartphone-based peripheral pH measurement device was designed to attach directly to the headphone port to harvest power and communicate with a smartphone application. This platform was tested using prepared pH buffers and sputum samples from CF patients. The system matches within ~0.03 pH of a benchtop pH meter while fully powering itself and communicating with a Samsung Galaxy S3 smartphone paired with either a glass or Iridium Oxide (IrOx) electrode. The IrOx electrodes were found to have 25% higher sensitivity than the glass probes at the expense of larger drift and matrix sensitivity that can be addressed with proper calibration. The smartphone-based platform has been demonstrated as a portable replacement for laboratory pH meters, and supports both highly robust glass probes and the sensitive and miniature IrOx electrodes with calibration. This tool can enable more frequent pH sputum tracking for CF patients to help detect the onset of pulmonary exacerbation to provide timely and appropriate treatment before serious damage occurs.

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16. Saeid Kakooei, Mokhtar Che Ismail, Bambang Ari Wahjoedi. Electrochemical Study of Iridium Oxide Coating on Stainless Steel Substrate // Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.- 2013. V.8. P. 3290 – 3301.

Abstract: Electrodeposition of Iridium Oxide (IrO2) on stainless steel substrate was performed by cyclic voltammetry to assess its performance as pH electrode sensor. The effect of scan rate and number of cycles on IrO2 thickness and pH sensitivity were investigated by electrochemical experiment. All fabricated pH sensor had a super-Nernstian response value in range of -69.9 to -74.5 mV/pH unit. Electrochemical results indicated iridium oxide decreased electrode impedance which was in direct relation with its thickness.

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17. рH метрия: настоящее и будущее / Yokogawa. - 2014.: TI 12B00A20-01R.

Abstract: Измерения pH и ОВП относятся к наиболее распространенным в промышленности, но их точность и правильная интерпретация не всегда бывают однозначны. Без учёта определённых факторов результаты могут оказаться ошибочными. Целью настоящего издания является стремление помочь лучше понять сам метод измерения pH/ОВП и природу факторов, оказывающих негативное влияние на точность результатов. Здесь вы сможете найти основные сведения о принципах измерения pH/ОВП, о конструкции чувствительных элементов и примеры использования рН-метрических систем в различных процессах. Для получения точных и надёжных измерений pH/ОВП требуется надлежащее техническое обслуживание и соблюдение особых условий хранения. Немаловажным является постоянная диагностика всех частей системы, а также предотвращение распространённых ошибок при эксплуатации рН анализаторов. В настоящем руководстве описано, как избежать и как обнаружить различные негативные явления.
Кроме того, в конце пособия приведен раздел с часто задаваемыми вопросами и ответами, а также приложения, в которых представлены таблица химической совместимости материалов и форма опросного листа для оформления запроса. Надеемся, что эта книга поможет вам в работе!

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References
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18. Катин О.И. О системе автоматического контроля pH жидкости // Международный студенческий научный вестник / X Международная студенческая научная конференция – Москва: Академия Естествознания, 2017.

Abstract: В системах гидропоники вопрос контроля кислотности водной среды можно назвать одним из самых значимых, так как успешное и продуктивное выращивание урожая напрямую зависит от параметров жидкости для полива. Метод определения pH с помощью индикаторной бумаги обеспечивает меньшую точность измерения в сравнении с другими методами, но более экономичен и прост в эксплуатации.[1,2] Для автоматизации данного метода может быть использован контроллер на базе платформы Arduino и датчик с RGB сенсором. Такая система измерения может быть снабжена специализированными модулями Wi-Fi или GPRS для обеспечения удаленного управления и мониторинга показаний.

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19. Romanenko S., Radenkov T., Newsky E.and Kagirov A. Differential sensor for pH monitoring of environmental objects // MATEC Web of Conferences. – 2016. V.79. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20167901008.

Abstract: Differential pH sensor is proposed. Reference electrode and measuring electrode are the same type. Reference electrode is immersed in standard buffer solution with known pH value. The differential pH sensor has longer service life as compared with the traditionally used sensors with silver chloride reference electrode. Ultrasonic cleaning system is proposed to clean the primary measuring transducer from pollution that form as result of silting during long-term operation with the sensor.

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References
[1] P. Jaikang, K. Grudpan, T. Kanyanee, Talanta 132, 884 (2015)
doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2014.10.046

[2] A. Kagirov, S. Romanenko, Testing. Diagnostics (Sp), 157 (2011)

[3] S.H.A. Hassan, S.W. Van Ginkel, M.A.M. Hussein, R. Abskharon, S.-E. Oh,
Environment International 92–93, 106 (2016) doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.03.003

[4] A. Kagirov, D. Kalashnikova, Testing. Diagnostics (13), 73 (2014)

[5] B.S. Echols , R.J. Currie, D.S. Cherry, J.R. Voshell, Environmental Monitoring and
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[6] C. Manjarrés, D. Garizado, M. Obregon, N. Socarras, M. Calle, C. Jimenez-
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[7] T. Radenkov, S. Romanenko, A. Kagirov, Testing. Diagnostics (Sp), 146 (2011)

[8] A. Kulasekaran, G. Andal, R. Lakshimipathy, J. John Alexander, International
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20. Caflisch C. R., Pucacco L. R., and Carter N. W. Manufacture and utilization of antimony pH electrodes // Kidney International. – 1978. Vol.14. P.126—141.

Abstract: A new technique for manufacturing single-barreled and double-barreled antimony pH microelectrodes is described. The results of investigations into the accuracy of antimony as a pH sensor disclosed that the pH-voltage response is: 1) within the physiologic range, principally the result of the hydrogen ion activity of the solution in which the voltage is being developed, 2) in part, qualitatively anion-dependent, 3) modified by the presence of significant amounts of at least carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen gases, and 4) markedly offset by fluctuations in temperature. Our results further indicate that the accuracy of antimony as a pH sensor is determined by the quality of the calibration procedure. We conelude that if the antimony electrode is to accurately determine the pH of a biological fluid, the pH calibration solutions must closely resemble the unknown biological fluid with respect to temperature, P02, PN2, and types of buffering anions. A calibration procedure is described which can minimize errors with antimony pH stimations when measuring the pH of proximal tubular fluid of the mammalian kidney.

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References
I. CARTER NW, RECTOR FC, CAMPION DS, SELDIN DW: Measurement of intracellular pH of skeletal muscle with pHsensitive glass microelectrodes. J Clin Invest 46:920—933, 1976

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3. CALDWELL PC: Studies on the internal pH of large muscle and nerve fibers. J Physiol 142:22—62. 1958

4. CARTER NW: The production and testing of double-barreled pH glass microelectrodes for the measurement of intratubular pH. YalefBiol Med 45:349—355, 1972

5. PUCACCO LR, CARTER NW: A glass membrane pH microelectrode. Anal Biochem 73:501—512, 1976

6. FRANK K, FUORTE5 MGF: Potentials recorded from the spinal cord with microelectrodes. J Physiol 130:625—654, 1955

7. GREEN R, GIEaIscu 0: Some problems with antimony microelectrodes, in Ion-Selective Microelectrodes, edited by BERMAN I-li, HEBERT NC, New York, Plenum Press, 1974, pp. 43—53

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9. KURELLA GA: Metal microelectrodes for pH determination in ion Selective Microelectrodes, edited by HEBERT NC, KI-iuRI RH, New York, Dekker, in press

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13. STOCK iT, PURDY WC, GARCIA LM: The antimony-antimony oxide electrode. Chem Rev 58:611—626. 1958
14. ROBERTS EJ, FENWECK F: The antimony-antimony trioxide electrode and its use as a measure of acidity. JAm Chem Soc 50:2125—2147. 19284. CARTER NW: The production and testing of double-barreled pH glass microelectrodes for the measurement of intratubular pH. YalefBiol Med 45:349—355, 1972

IS. TOURKEY AR, MousA AA: Studies on some metal electrodes. J Chem Soc 752—763, 1948

16. MALNIC G, VIEIRA FL: The antimony microelectrode in kidney micropuncture. Yale J Biol Med 45:356—367, 1972

17. SoLoMoN 5, ALPERT H: A method for determining titratable acidity in nanoliter samples of biological fluids. Anal Biochem 32:291—296, 1969

18. KARLMARK B: An ultramicro method for the separate titration of hydrogen and ammonium ions. Pfiuegers Arch 323:361— 365, 1971

19. KARLMARK B: The determination of titratable acid and ammonium ions in picomole amounts. Anal Biochem 52:69—82,1973

20. BICHER HI, OHKI S: Intracellular pH electrode experiments on the giant squid axon. Biochem Biophys Acta 255:901—904, 1972

21. KURELLA GA, Popov GA: Determination of pH by means of the antimony micro-electrode. Biofizika 5:373—375, 1960

22. V0R0BIEv LN, KURELLA GA, PoPov GA: Intracellular pH of Nitella flexillis at rest and after excitation. Biofizika 6:582— 589, 1961

23. PUSCHETI- JB, ZURBACH PE: Re-evaluation of microelectrode methodology for the in vitro determination of pH and bicarbonate concentration. Kidney mt 6:81—91, 1974

24. KARLMARK B, SOHTELL M: The determination of bicarbonate in nanoliter samples. Anal Biochem 53:1—Il, 1973
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26. QUEHENBERGER P: The influence of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and other buffers on the potential of antimony microelectrodes. Pfluegers Arch 368:141—147,1977

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