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НИЛ АСЭМ Научно - исследовательская лаборатория автоматизированных систем экологического мониторинга

pH - метрия

Подборка научных статей

by Admin » Fri Mar 23, 2018 2:16 pm


В данном разделе будут выкладываться научные статьи, посвященные pH - метрическому методу анализа, а также новым приборам и разработкам для pH - метрии.


Abstract: The definition of a “primary method of measurement” [1] has permitted a full consideration of the definition of primary standards for pH, determined by a primary method (cell without transference, Harned cell), of the definition of secondary standards by secondary methods, and of the question whether pH, as a conventional quantity, can be incorporated within the internationally accepted system of measurement, the International System of Units (SI, Systиme International d’Unitйs). This approach has enabled resolution of the previous compromise IUPAC 1985 Recommendations [2]. Furthermore, incorporation of the uncertainties for the primary method, and for all subsequent measurements, permits the uncertainties for all procedures to be linked to the primary standards by an unbroken chain of comparisons. Thus, a rational choice can be made by the analyst of the appropriate procedure to achieve the target uncertainty of sample pH. Accordingly, this document explains IUPAC recommended definitions, procedures, and terminology relating to pH measurements in dilute aqueous solutions in the temperature range 5–50 °C. Details are given of the primary and secondary methods for measuring pH and the rationale for the assignment of pH values with appropriate uncertainties to selected primary and secondary substances.

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References
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by Admin » Fri Mar 23, 2018 2:54 pm

2. Baker P., Chen C., Hernandez M. Auto-titrating pH Meter / Mechatronics.- 2009. P. 1-26.

Abstract:The Auto-Titrating pH (ATpH) meter is designed to be fully automated; it is expected to display the pH of a given solution, adjust the pH to a preset value or maintain the pH within a given range. This instrument is meant for a chemical and biological laboratory. The pH measurement is a fundamental parameter for most chemical and biological reactions. The reproducibility of experimental data is hindered by inconsistently prepared reagents. For example, the industrial significant reaction of lipase hydrolysis is 10,000-fold less active at pH 4 as opposed to pH 7, thus demonstrating the importance of maintaining a desired pH. In addition, the environment around a protein changes with a given pH. As the concentration of hydrogen ion ([H+]) increases or decreases within a solution, a protein’s amino acid residues may gain or lose protons, affecting its overall net charge and structure, and therefore influencing its native function. Different proteins have unique pH ranges at which they function optimally. For protein engineers, maintaining a pH within this range may not only save protein functionality but may also increase yield productivity if the protein in question is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing biochemical reactions.

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References
References
• Basic Analog and Digital, Student Guide, Version 1.3, 2004 by Parallax
• BASIC Stamp Syntax and Reference Manual, Version 2.2, 2005 by Parallax
• Robotics with the Boe-Bot, Student Guide, Version 2.2, 2004 by Parallax
• V. Kapila, Mechatronics Course Lecture Notes, 2009
http://www.ph-meter.info/pH-meter-history
http://www.66pacific.com/ph/simplest_ph.aspx
http://www.emesystems.com/OL2ph.htm
http://www.ecircuitcenter.com/Circuits/ ... _ibias.htm
http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/circuits/
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by Admin » Fri Mar 23, 2018 3:30 pm

3. Mashud M. A. A., Masud M. A., Serajul Islam Md. Design and Development of Microcontroller
Based Digital pH Meter // Ulab journal of science and engineering. – 2011. VOL. 2. – P. 31-34.


Abstract: A Microcontroller based digital pH meter was designed and developed to measure the value of pH (acidity or alkalinity) for any type of solution. Two op-amps of high input impedance and low output impedance were used to design the pH meter: one is used as a buffer and the other as a summing amplifier. The output of the summing amplifier is connected to the microcontroller as an input. The pH value of a solution microcontroller provides the output value. A microcontroller PIC12F675 was used to control the developed system’s function. A C language program was developed to control the function of the microcontroller, using the PCWH Compiler. The output of the microcontroller is displayed as a pH value that ranges from 0.0 to 14.0 in the three seven segment display.

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References
[1] http://www.clarksonlab.com/vAnas.pdf ; Cole-Parmer catalog 97- 98.

[2] D. Meiners, S. Clift and D. Kaminski, “Evaluation of various
techniques to Monitor Intragastric pH,” Arch Surg 117(3): 288
291, 1982.

[3] S.J. Taylor, R. Clemente, “Confirmation of nasogastric tubeposition by pH testing,” J Hum Nutr Diet, 18(5):371- 375, 2005.

[4] R.L. Levine, RE Jr. Fromm and M. Mojtahedzadeh, “Equivalence
of litmus paper and intragastric pH probes for intragastric
pH monitoring in the intensive care unit,” Crit Care Med,
22(6): 945-948, 1994.

[5] A.A .Baghaie, M. Mojtahedzadeh and RL. Levine, “Comparison
of Intermittent administration and continuous infusion of famotidine
on gastric pH in critically ill patients: results of a prospective,
randomized, crossover study,” Crit care Med, 23(4):687-
691, 1995.

[6] “Farnell Semiconductor Data CD-ROM,” Data sheet 2143.pdf,
7805IC, 7905IC, Issue 7 January 2000.

[7] V.K. MEHTA, “Principles of Electronics,” Revised edition, page-
150.

[8] R.F. Coughlin and F. F. Driscoll “Operational Amplifiers and
Linear Integrated Circuits,” Second Edition.

[9] R. A. Gayakward, “Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits,”
Fourth Edition.

[10] http://www.microchip.com/downloads/en/d ... 41190c.pdf

[11] PCWH Compiler®IDE, Version 3.43, http://www.ccsinfo.com

[12] “Farnell Semiconductor Data CD-ROM,”Data sheet 6365001.
Issue 7 January 2000.

[13] R.S International Electronic Cataloge, March 2003. R.A. Lugo
AM. Harrison, J. Cash, “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
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29(4):759-764, 2001.
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by Admin » Fri Mar 23, 2018 3:54 pm

4. Manjarrés C., Garizado D., Calle M., Jiménez C. Chemical Wireless Sensor Network for pH Remote Monitoring // Ibersensor. – 2012. -October 16-19, Puerto Rico. Vol. IB. P. 58.

Abstract: The use of microsensors for in-field monitoring of environmental parameters is gaining interest due to their advantages over conventional sensors. Among them, microsensors and specifically Ion Selective Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) based on semiconductor technology offer additional advantages such as small size, robustness, low output impedance and rapid response. ISFETs sensors can be integrated into a wireless network in order to monitor pH from different locations and transmit information to a central point. The paper proposes a Chemical Wireless Sensor Network (CWSN) for pH monitoring through long distances, showing the general system and preliminary results.


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References
[1] J. Hayes, S. Beirne, K. Lau and D. Diamond, “Evaluation
of a low cost Wireless Chemical Sensor Network for
Environmental Monitoring”, IEEE Sensors 2008 Conference,
Lecce, Italy, October 26-29, pp 530-533, 2008.

[2] C. Jimenez-Jorquera, J. Orozco and A. Baldi, “ISFET
Based Microsensors for Environmental Monitoring”,
Sensors 2010, 10, 61-83

[3] S. De Vito et al, “Wireless Sensor Networks for
Distributed Chemical Sensing: Addressing Power
Consumption Limits With On-Board Intelligence”, IEEE
Sensors Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 947-955, April, 2011.

[4] V. Devan, “pH Wireless Sensor Network for the meat
tenderizing process”, Master Thesis, Auckland University of
Technology, Auckland New Zealand, 2010.

[5] F. Valdés-Perezgasga, “Intramyocardial pH
Measurements using Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors”,
Ph. D. Thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1990.
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by Admin » Sat Mar 24, 2018 9:47 am

5. Ramya V., Palaniappan B. V. Embedded pH data acquisition and logging // Advanced Computing: An International Journal ( ACIJ ). – 2012. Vol.3. No.1. – P.45 – 63.

Abstract:
The Accurate measurement and analysis of pH data is necessary for a multitude of applications ranging from agriculture sector to clinical laboratories. Preferably an inexpensive hand-held unit is needed for these applications. This paper presents the sensor data acquisition and data logging system including the details of its construction, capabilities and applications. PIC microcontroller has in-built ADC, which samples the output pH level measured by a pH meter.

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References
[1] Hongwei song, xuning liu, Haichun Zhang, Wei shi, “Research on data Acquisition System of
Embedded Intelligent Up town”, IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Information
Technology MMIT 2010, Page(s): 3-6.

[2] Zhao kunrong, Yang Dayong, Lin kui, Yang jian, “An Embedded Environmental Monitoring data
collecting system”, IEEE International Conference on ICISE2010, Page(s): 1-4.

[3] Gordon. D, Witt. F, Schmidtke. H, Beigal .M, “A Long-term Sensory logging device for Subject
Monitoring”, IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for healthcare,
2010, Page(s): 1-4.

[4] Nkom. B, Musa. H, “Development of a Novel Microcontroller- based data logger”, IEEE
International Conference on Adaptive Science&Tecnology, 2009, Page(s): 314-324.

[5] Hjertstrom. A,Ny Strom. D, Sjodin. M, “A data- entity approach for component-based real-time
embedded systems development”, IEEE International Conference on ETFA 2009, Pages: 1-8.
Fig 5: Prototype of the developed system
Advanced Computing: An International Journal ( ACIJ ), Vol.3, No.1, January 2012 63

[6] Helena G. Ramos ' Member, P. GirZo, Senior Member, O.Postolache, Member, M. Pereira,
Member IEEE ” Distributed Water Quality Measurement System Based on SDI- 12” IEEE
AFRICON 2004

[7] Bo He, Ke Yao, Bingsen Li, Chunyun Ren, Jing luo, “Design and Reliability analysis of Data
Logging and Management system for AUV”, IEEE International Conference on Information
Engineering, 2009, Page(s): 75-78.

[8] Sehgal, V.K.; Nitin; Chauhan, D.S.; Sharma, R.; “Smart wireless temperature data logger using
IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee protocol”,TENCON 2008-IEEE conferencePage(s): 1 – 6.

[9] Tarchanidis, K.N. Lygouras, J.N. Pachidis, T. Kodogiannis, V. Chatziandreoglou, C.G, “pH
Neutralization Through Internet”, Proceedings of IEEE international conference,July 2006,
page(s): 19 – 23.

[10]Luharuka, R. Gao, R.X. Krishnamurty, S, “Design and realization of a portable data logger for physiological sensing [GSR]”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, August 2003, Volume: 52, Issue: 4, page(s): 1289 – 1295.

[11]Fanliang Kong; Gui-Tang Pan; Zhiwei Xia; Hongjun Chai; Sanran Lin; Xueming Huang,
“The development of long-term ambulatory pH monitoring system and its clinical
application”,Proceedings of IEEE, 2002, Volume: 4, page(s): 1914 – 1916.

[12]Newberry. B, Cnrad. J.M, “Data Logging Solution For Digital Signal Processors”, IEEE
Proceedings 2007, Page(s): 247-252.

[13]National Instruments “pH measurement tutorial”,.http://zone.ni.com/dezone/cda/tut/p/id/2870.

[14]Ali Ziya Alkar, Member, IEEE, and Mehmet Atif Karaca “An Internet-Based Interactive
Embedded Data-Acquisition System for Real-Time Applications” IEEE transactions on
instrumentation and measurement, VOL. 58, NO.3, March 2009.

[15] U. Hashim, M. N. Haron “Design of Digital Display System for ISFET pH Sensor by Using PIC
Microcontroller Unit (MCU)” 2009 IEEE Transactions.

[16]Byung Hwan Chu, B. S. Kang, C. Y. Chang, Fan Ren, Fellow, IEEE, Aik Goh, Andrew Sciullo,
Wenhsing Wu, Jenshan Lin, Fellow, IEEE, B. P. Gila, Steve J. Pearton, Fellow, IEEE, J. W.
Johnson, E. L. Piner, and Kevin J. Linthicum “Wireless Detection System for Glucose and pH
Sensing in Exhaled Breath Condensate Using AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors”
2009 IEEE Transactions.
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by Admin » Sat Mar 24, 2018 6:14 pm

6. Begum B.S., Kumar A.S. Embedded Instrumentation Based Soil pH Measurement System // IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS). – 2013. Vol.2. No.6. P. 51-55.

Abstract: Soil pH is a measure of hydronium ion (more commonly the H+) activity in the soil solution. Activity is similar to concentration in non-salt-affected soils. Soil pH influences many facets of crop production and soil chemistry, including availabilities of nutrients and toxic substances, activities and nature of microbial populations, and activities of certain pesticides. Soil pH is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the H+ activity (moles per liter) in the soil solution. As the activity of H+ in the soil solution increases, the soil pH value decreases. Soils with pH values below pH 7 are referred to as "acid" and those with pH values above pH 7 as "alkaline"; soils at pH 7 are referred to as "neutral." Hence in present study an attempt is made to implement Embedded based Soil pH meter.

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References
[1]. Galster, H. pH Measurement; VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 1991.
[2]. Skoog, D. A.; West, D. M.; Holler, F. J. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry,6th ed.; Saunders: Philadelphia, PA. 1992.
[3]. Harris, D. C. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 4th ed.; Freeman: NY, 1998.
[4]. Handbook of Electronic Technology 3rd. ed.; Orion Research: Cambridge, U.K., 1982.
[5]. Practice and Theory of pH Measurement; Ingold: Urdorf, Switzerland, 1989.
[6]. Temsamani, K. L.; Cheng, K. L. Sensors and Actuators B 2001, 76, 551-555.
[7]. Milazzo, G.; Sagloo, C. Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials; Wiley: New York, 1978.
[8]. Bates, R. Determination of pH, 2nd ed.: Wiley: New York, 1974.
[9]. Bockris, J. O’M.; Reddy, A.K.N. Modern Electrochemistry; Plenum: New York, 1970; p. 18,
[10]. Wu, Y. C.; Koch, W. F.; Marinenko, G. J. Res. NBC 1989, 395.
[11]. Adams, F. and C. E. Evans. 1962. A rapid method for measuring lime requirement of red-yellow podzolic soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer.
Proc. 26:355-357.
[12]. Graham, E. R. 1959. An explanation of theory and methods of soil testing. Missouri Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 734.
Books
1. WHAT IS pH, AND HOW IS IT MEASURED?
A Technical Handbook for Industry
By Frederick J. Kohlmann © Hach
http://www.alliancets.com/site/files/40 ... rement.pdf
http://ebookbrowse.com/l-08-ss-ia-c-ee- ... -d73174056
http://www.raihome.com
http://www.radiometer-analytical.com
www.hach.com/smartprobes
http://www.edn.com/design/test-and-meas ... a-pH-meter
Http://www.freecircuitdiagrams.com/
http://www.ehow.com/how_7778032_make-ho ... meter.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nernst_equation
http://wiki.pinguino.cc/images/a/aa/PIC ... iagram.png
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by Admin » Sun Mar 25, 2018 8:20 am

7. Automated pH Monitoring System. Ed. By S. K. Partridge. Worcester polytechnic institute, 2013.

Abstract:The purpose of this project was to assist greenhouse monitoring systems by automatically checking and maintaining the pH levels of nutrient enriched water solution used in soil-less agriculture systems. To accomplish this goal a pH sensor was interfaced with a PIC microcontroller. Initial tests were not able to be tested due to the time constraint of the project and the lack of a working program to control the system. Further work is essential to complete a working prototype.

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References
[1] Leonard Perry, “pH for the Garden”, 2003
[2] Bodie V. Pennisand Paul A. Thomas, “How Does pH Affect Greenhouse Crops?”, 2012
[3] Cuny.edu, “What is pH”, 2007
[4] Optimara.com, “pH Imbalances”, 1999
[5] EpicGardening.com, “hydroponics vs. Soil: 7 Reasons Hydroponics Wins”, 2012
[6] K12.hi.us, “What is Hydroponics”, 1999
[7] Hydroponics0simplified.com, “Disadvantages of Hydroponics”, 2011
[8] Dr. Ken Knutson, “Aeroponics International”, 2005
[9] Aeroponics.com, “Water/Nutrient Solution-Recycling”, 2012
[10] Robert Puro, “Urban Agriculture Aeroponic Systems”, 2011
[11] Wikipedia.org, “Aeroponics”, 2013
[12] Growingpower.org, “Aquaponics”, 2009
[13] 2011James Rakocy, Donald Bailey, Charlie Shultz and Jason Danaher, “Design and Operation of
the UVI Aquaponic System”, 2009
[14] Wallyfarm.com, “Aquaponics – Advantages and Disadvantages”,
[15] Homehydrosystems.com, “Build Your Own Hydroponic Systems”, 2013
[16] Nehydro.com, “Aeroponic Systems”, 2013
[17] Auaponicsusa.com, “Aquaponic Systems”, 2013
[18] Gothicarchgreenhouses.com, “Luxury Greenhouses”, 2010
[19] Gstatic.com, “Hydroponics”, 2009
[20] Shuttrstock.com, “Inside a plastic covered greenhouse”, 2013
[21] Fadhrick Pickaso, “Commercial food productions and hydroponics”, 2012
[22] Gordan101.com, “Hydroponics vs. Soil”, 2008
[23] Lisa Barnes & Nicole Nichols, “The Benefits of Growing Your Own Food”, 2013
[24] SD HYDRO, “Go Green: Conserving Water with Hydro”, 2010
[25] Cornell University CEA Program, “Floating Hydroponics Green House”, 2013
[26] QCOMcontrols.com, “Products”, 2013
[27] Glenn Rifkin, “Cash Crops Under Glass and Up on the Roof”, 2011
[28] Lufa.com, “The science underneath the glass”, 2013
[29] Getbluelab.com, “The Bluelab Dosetronic Controller”, 2013
[30] Hannainst.com, “HI 5000”, 2013
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by Admin » Sun Mar 25, 2018 7:27 pm

8. Design and construction of an automatic system for water maintenance of domestic pool. Ed. By Padilla J.O. Universitat politechnica de catalunya, Barcelona, 11 de Gener de 2016.

Abstract:This final degree work involves the design and construction of an automatic dosing of chemicals required for maintenance and correction of pH water of a domestic swimming pool. The system is controlled by a microcontroller PIC which with the information collected from the pH and temperature sensors and pre-calculation of the software, trigger the corresponding valve of the required product. After would also trigger the peristaltic pump, sending the product to the standard filtration system of the pool. The microcontroller also would control the centrifugal pump filtration system from the pool to ensure that the chemical is distributed in the pool.

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by Admin » Wed Jun 06, 2018 11:26 am

9. John J. Barron Colin Ashton & Leo Geary. The Effects of Temperature on pH Measurement / Technical Services Department, Reagecon Diagnostics Ltd, Shannon Free Zone, County Clare, Ireland.

Abstract: Some of the effects of temperature on pH measurement have been described or alluded to in both instrument manufacturers instructions and independent scientific literature. Some of these have been presented in a very theoretical manner and thus have been of limited practical value, others have been described adequately from a practical perspective. However a comprehensive classification of the principal effects of temperature on pH with practical remedial actions to correct, reduce or eliminate these errors has never previously been reported. This paper presents for the first time a clear classification of the practical effects of temperature on pH. It provides a definite set of guidelines on how the different errors can be reduced or eliminated thus giving the user greater confidence in the result of their pH measurements.

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References
1. Steven S. Zumdahl, Chemistry 3rd Edition. D.C. Heath & Co., 1993, p645.

2. Helmuth Galster, “pH Measurement: Fundamentals, Methods, Applications, Instrumentation”. VCH Publishers Inc., 1991, p21.

3. Ursula Tinner. Electrodes in Potentiometry – Metrohm Monographs, p2.

4. Principles and problems of pH measurement. . Ingold Messtechnik AG, 1980, p22.

5. Helmuth Galster, “pH Measurement: Fundamentals, Methods, Applications, Instrumentation”. VCH Publishers Inc., 1991, p159

6. Guide to pH measurement. Mettler Toledo, 1997, p10.

7. Orion US pH Electrode Catalog and Guide to pH Measurement.1986, p3.

8. Stephen Russell. pH – A guide to measurement in water applications. WRc Instrument Handbook, 1994, p13.

9. Laboratory Electrodes Catalogue. Schott Instruments GmbH, 2002, p6.

10. Reagecon Product labels, Buffer Solution pH4.00 ± 0.01 @ 25°C (Product No. 1040), Buffer Solution pH 7.00 ± 0.01 @ 25°C (Product No. 1070), Buffer Solution pH 10.00 ± 0.01 @ 25°C (Product No. 110025)

11. Operating manual for CG843P pH meter. Schott Instruments GmbH, 1999, ba12244e_2, p85.
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by Admin » Wed Jun 06, 2018 11:51 am

10. Samuel E. de Lucena. The electronic detail of a digital ph-meter / XVIII IMEKO WORLD CONGRESS Metrology for a Sustainable Development September, 17 – 22, 2006, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Abstract: This paperwork presents the complete circuitry used to build a microcontroller-based pH-meter. Key control software is also discussed. An industry-standard glass combination electrode has been employed for pH detection. Electrode parameter extraction procedure is presented. Good measurement results, with 1 % error, have been attained.

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References
[1] National Instruments Corp. pH Measurement Tutorial, http://www.ni.com/devzone, January 2005.

[2] G. Asch (ed.), Les Capteurs en Instrumentation Indus-trielle. 5e édition. Paris: Dunod, pp. 749-775, 1999.

[3] A. Safavi, and M. Gagheri, “Novel optical pH sensor for high and low pH values,” Sensors and Actuators, B, 90, pp. 143-150, 2003.

[4] N. Sharma, and B. D. Gupta, “Fabrication and characterization of pH sensor based on side polished single mode optical fiber,” Optics Communications, 216, pp. 299-303, 2003.

[5] H. Galster, pH Measurement: Fundamentals, Methods, Applications, Instrumentation. New York: VCH Publishers, pp. 21-23, 1991.


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